1. There are 54 countries and one “non-self governing territory”, the Western Sahara, in Africa.

2. All of Africa was colonized by foreign powers during the “scramble for Africa”, except Ethiopia and Liberia.

3. Before colonial rule Africa comprised up to 10,000 different states and autonomous groups with distinct languages and customs.

4. The Pharaonic civilization of ancient Egypt is one of the world’s oldest and longest-lasting civilizations.

5. African continent is the world’s oldest populated area.

6. Arabic is spoken by 170 million people on the continent, followed in popularity by English (130 million), Swahili (100), French (115), Berber (50), Hausa (50), Portuguese (20) and Spanish (10).

7. Over 25% all languages are spoken only in Africa with over 2,000 recognised languages spoken on the continent.

8. Africa is the second most populous continent with about 1.1 billion people or 16% of the world’s population. Over 50% of Africans are under the age of 25.

9. The continent’s population will more than double to 2.3 billion people by 2050.

10. Africa is the world’s poorest and most underdeveloped continent with a continental GDP that accounts for just 2.4% of global GDP.

11. Almost 40% of adults in Africa are illiterate – two-thirds are women. Adult literacy rates are below 50% in Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone and The Gambia.

12. Over 25 million people are HIV-positive on the continent and over 17 million have died of the disease already.

13. The Second Congo War claimed over 5.4 million lives and is the deadliest worldwide conflict since World War II.

14. There are fewer people with internet connections in Africa than there are in just New York City.

15. Approximately 90% of all cases of malaria worldwide occur in Africa, accounting for 24% of all child deaths in sub-Saharan Africa.

16. Africa is the world’s second largest continent covering about over 30 million square kilometers

17. The Sahara is the largest desert in the world and is bigger than the continental USA.

18. Africa is the world’s hottest continent with deserts and drylands covering 60% of land surface area (e.g. Kalahari, Sahara and Namib).
Africa is the world’s second driest continent (after Australia).

19. Africa has approximately 30% of the earth’s remaining mineral resources.

20. Nigeria is fourth largest oil exporter in the world, and Africa’s biggest oil producer with about 2.2 million barrels produced every day.

21. Top 10 oil producers in order of total exports: Nigeria, Algeria, Angola, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Republic of Congo, Gabon, South Africa.

22. The continent has the largest reserves of precious metals with over 40% of the gold reserves, over 60% of the cobalt, and 90% of the platinum reserves.

23. Every year the catch gets smaller and smaller. For better luck the flags have been getting brighter and more abundant. Today the fish are small and few due to exploitation by commercial fishing vessels. (Steve Boyes)

24. China is Africa’s top trade partner with Sino-African trade volumes now nearing $200 billion per year.

25. China’s direct investment in Africa exceeds $50 billion. Just look at the “Forum on China Africa Cooperation”.

26. Neocolonialism is a real threat with over 1 million Chinese citizens on the African continent. Angola alone has a population of over 350,000 Chinese.

27. Over 55% of Africa’s labour force working in food production with vast areas of arable and pastoral lands supporting agricultural economies.

28. Over 90% of soils are unsuitable for agriculture and only 0.25% has moderate to low potential for sustainable farming.
Rainfall variability is very high – from 0 mm/year in the Sahara to 9,500 mm/year near Mount Cameroon.

29. Over 240 million Africans suffer from chronic undernourishment.

30. The streets of Porto Novo, the capital of Benin, are not paved, all cars are second-hand, and all taxis are motorbikes. (Steve Boyes)

31. Water scarcity impacts the lives of over 300 million Africans, of whom approximately 75% of Africans rely on groundwater as their primary source of drinking water. Global warming is aggravating the situation.

32. Limited groundwater represents only 15% of the continent’s total renewable water resources. New discoveries of groundwater reserves in large sedimentary basins in Libya, Algeria and Chad may slack Africa’s growing thirst for the next few decades…

33. Productivity of about 65% of the continent’s agricultural lands has declined significantly with vast tracts of land have been degraded by erosion, poor land management practices, mining and pollution over the last 50 years.

34. Some landscapes are estimated to lose over 50 metric tonnes of soil per hectare per year due to neglect and desertification.

35. Over 30% of Africa’s pastural land and almost 20% of all forests and woodlands are classified as moderately- or heavily-degraded.

36. Ladies waiting for a boat to take them back to the floating village of Ganvi in Benin. The water is polluted and the fish stocks are collapsing. Is there hope for communities like this? (Conrad Hennig)

37. Deforestation rates in Africa are twice the average for the rest of the world with more than four million hectares of primary forest disappearing every year.

38. Countries like Kenya, malawi and Zambia have 1-5% of the primary forests remaining. Forests used to cover over 20% of Africa’s 30 million square kilometers with almost all currently being destroyed and degraded by commercial and subsistence logging, as well as land conversion to plantations, agriculture, mines, roads and settlements.

39. Some 60% of the tropical forests in the Congo Basin are considered commercially exploitable.

40. Six of the top ten countries with the largest annual net loss of forested area are in Africa.

41. Primary forests shrink by on average 40,000 square kilometres (or 0.6% of total remaining forest cover) each year with most significant losses in heavily-forested countries such as the

42. Democratic Republic of Congo and Gabon.

43. Hala Village in the valleys below Hogsback Mountain where Cape parrots used to feed on yellowwood fruits, Celtis fruits, wild olives, and wild plums before they were chopped out by greedy colonists or burnt under communal land ownership. We have now planted thousands of indigenous fruit trees in “Cape Parrot Community Orchards” in several villages, fencing them off to protect them from livestock and paying local communities to care for them as the custodians of these forest plots. We have also launched a micro-nursery program that builds small tree nurseries for ten households in the village, which are stocked with yellowwood seedlings that must be grown up to planting size. These partnerships are all going from strength to strength. (Steve Boyes / Cape Parrot Project)

44. Over 1,270 large dams have been built along the continent’s many rivers.
Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa and the second-largest freshwater lake in the world.

45. Africa has the most extensive biomass burning in the world, yet only emits about 4% of the world’s total carbon dioxide emissions.

46. Africa has eight of the 11 major biomes and the largest-remaining populations of lion, elephant, rhinoceros, cheetah, hyena, leopard and hundreds of other species.

47. Megafauna like giraffe, zebra, gorilla, hippopotamus, chimpanzee and wildebeest are unique to the continent and only found here.

48. Lake Malawi has more fish species than any other freshwater system on earth.

49. The Nile River is the longest river in the world with a total length of 6,650 kilometres.

50. Africa has over 85% of the world’s elephants and over 99% of the remaining lions are on the African continent.

51. Eight of Conservation International’s 34 biodiversity hotspots are in Africa.

52. The Serengeti (Tanzania) hosts the world’s largest wildlife migration on Earth with over 750,000 zebra marching ahead of 1.2 million wildebeest as they cross this amazing landscape.

53. There are over 3,000 protected areas in Africa, including 198 Marine Protected Areas, 50 Biosphere Reserves, 129 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and 80 RAMSAR “Wetlands of International Importance”.

54. Africa is home to the world’s largest living land animal, the African elephant, which can weigh up to 7 tons.

55. Africa has over 25% of the world’s bird species.

56. Today there are few truly wild places left on the continent with 1.1 billion people and a global economy looking to Africa for the resources to sustain development into the next century. Technology is going to help, but, if we carry on our current trajectory, we will destroy our greatest work. The colossal monument that now stands in Dakar (Senegal) was named “The African Renaissance”, and depicts a handsome couple holding their baby to the sky to beckon the dawning of an African century. In 2010, then-President Wade of Senegal said the following at the opening ceremony: “It brings to life our common destiny. Africa has arrived in the 21st century standing tall and more ready than ever to take its destiny into its hands”.

Call for Proposals – The State and Study of Africa


58th Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association
The State and the Study of Africa
November 19-22, 2015
Sheraton San Diego Hotel and Marina
San Diego, CA

Dismas A. Masolo, University of Louisville
Derek R. Peterson, University of Michigan

We are soliciting proposals for papers, panels, and roundtables. Presentations may focus on the theme of “The State and Study of Africa” or on broader social science, humanities, and applied themes relating to Africa. We strongly encourage the submission of formed panels. You can find more information on the theme and the guidelines for proposals at the ASA website.

The ASA is excited to announce that this year we have a new category for submissions! In addition to submitting a panel, roundtable, or paper, you may also submit a proposal for an “Author Meets Critic” roundtable. You can find more information on the ASA website.

The ASA has another new initiative that we hope will help individuals utilize the ASA network to find potential panelists. You will now be able to post a “call for panelists” on the ASA website. If you have a proposed panel abstract, you will be able to request that it is posted on the ASA website prior to the close of the CFP along with a call for potential panelists under that theme. More information can be found on the ASA website. Please note that panel organizers must still submit an organized panel proposal by March 15, 2015.

Instructions for submitting proposals can be found online on the ASA website.

PLEASE NOTE: If your proposal is accepted, the conference pre-registration fee must be paid by May 15, 2015 by ALL participants. Payment of the pre-registration fee will result in a final acceptance. Failure to pay the pre-registration fee by May 15, 2015, will result in an automatic rejection.

Join the ASA or renew your membership. ASA membership can be purchased through Cambridge University Press. If you have any difficulties registering, please contact Cambridge at usmemberservices@cambridge.org.


Established in 1957, the African Studies Association is the largest organization in the world devoted to enhancing the exchange of information about Africa. Our members include scholars, students, teachers, activists, development professionals, policy makers, donors and many others. We encourage interdisciplinary interactions with Africa. We provide access to pathbreaking research and key debates in African studies. We bring together people with scholarly and other interests in Africa through our annual meeting and seek to broaden professional opportunities in the field of African studies. The organization publishes two leading interdisciplinary journals on Africa, African Studies Review and History in Africa and promotes an informed understanding of Africa to the public and in educational institutions as well as to businesses, media, and other communities that have interests in Africa.

For general questions regarding the meeting and/or registration please contact members@africanstudies.org. For questions regarding the submission process, guidelines, or program theme please contact asameeting2015@gmail.com.

We welcome your participation in this exciting conference and in the ASA!

100 Things That You Did Not Know About Africa

Many people have a misconception that Africa has no history, however, studies into history and archeological records has proven that Africa has more rich and great history than what the old historians tried to make us believe. A careful reading of the information below compiled by Dr Robin Walkin makes it abundantly clear that African has an unequal history in the world.

1. The human race is of African origin. The oldest known skeletal remains of anatomically modern humans (or homo sapiens) were excavated at sites in East Africa. Human remains were discovered at Omo in Ethiopia that were dated at 195,000 years old, the oldest kn

own in the world.

2. Skeletons of pre-humans have been found in Africa that date back between 4 and 5 million years. The oldest known ancestral type of humanity is thought to have been the australopithecus ramidus, who lived at least 4.4 million years ago.

3. Africans were the first to organise fishing expeditions 90,000 years ago. At Katanda, a region in northeastern Zaïre (now Congo), was recovered a finely wrought series of harpoon points, all elaborately polished and barbed. Also uncovered was a tool, equally well crafted, believed to be a dagger. The discoveries suggested the existence of an early aquatic or fishing based culture.

4. Africans were the first to engage in mining 43,000 years ago. In 1964 a hematite mine was found in Swaziland at Bomvu Ridge in the Ngwenya mountain range. Ultimately 300,000 artefacts were recovered including thousands of stone-made mining tools. Adrian Boshier, one of the archaeologists on the site, dated the mine to a staggering 43,200 years old.

5. Africans pioneered basic arithmetic 25,000 years ago. The Ishango bone is a tool handle with notches carved into it found in the Ishango region of Zaïre (now called Congo) near Lake Edward. The bone tool was originally thought to have been over 8,000 years old, but a more sensitive recent dating has given dates of 25,000 years old. On the tool are 3 rows of notches. Row 1 shows three notches carved next to six, four carved next to eight, ten carved next to two fives and finally a seven. The 3 and 6, 4 and 8, and 10 and 5, represent the process of doubling. Row 2 shows eleven notches carved next to twenty-one notches, and nineteen notches carved next to nine notches. This represents 10 + 1, 20 + 1, 20 – 1 and 10 – 1. Finally, Row 3 shows eleven notches, thirteen notches, seventeen notches and nineteen notches. 11, 13, 17 and 19 are the prime numbers between 10 and 20.

6. Africans cultivated crops 12,000 years ago, the first known advances in agriculture. Professor Fred Wendorf discovered that people in Egypt’s Western Desert cultivated crops of barley, capers, chick-peas, dates, legumes, lentils and wheat. Their ancient tools were also recovered. There were grindstones, milling stones, cutting blades, hide scrapers, engraving burins, and mortars and pestles.

7. Africans mummified their dead 9,000 years ago. A mummified infant was found under the Uan Muhuggiag rock shelter in south western Libya. The infant was buried in the foetal position and was mummified using a very sophisticated technique that must have taken hundreds of years to evolve. The technique predates the earliest mummies known in Ancient Egypt by at least 1,000 years. Carbon dating is controversial but the mummy may date from 7438 (±220) BC.

8. Africans carved the world’s first colossal sculpture 7,000 or more years ago. The Great Sphinx of Giza was fashioned with the head of a man combined with the body of a lion. A key and important question raised by this monument was: How old is it? In October 1991 Professor Robert Schoch, a geologist from Boston University, demonstrated that the Sphinx was sculpted between 5000 BC and 7000 BC, dates that he considered conservative.

9. On the 1 March 1979, the New York Times carried an article on its front page also page sixteen that was entitled Nubian Monarchy called Oldest. In this article we were assured that: “Evidence of the oldest recognizable monarchy in human history, preceding the rise of the earliest Egyptian kings by several generations, has been discovered in artifacts from ancient Nubia” (i.e. the territory of the northern Sudan and the southern portion of modern Egypt.)

10. The ancient Egyptians had the same type of tropically adapted skeletal proportions as modern Black Africans. A 2003 paper appeared in American Journal of Physical Anthropology by Dr Sonia Zakrzewski entitled Variation in Ancient Egyptian Stature and Body Proportions where she states that: “The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians had the ‘super-Negroid’ body plan described by Robins (1983). The values for the brachial and crural indices show that the distal segments of each limb are longer relative to the proximal segments than in many ‘African’ populations.”

11. The ancient Egyptians had Afro combs. One writer tells us that the Egyptians “manufactured a very striking range of combs in ivory: the shape of these is distinctly African and is like the combs used even today by Africans and those of African descent.”

12. The Funerary Complex in the ancient Egyptian city of Saqqara is the oldest building that tourists regularly visit today. An outer wall, now mostly in ruins, surrounded the whole structure. Through the entrance are a series of columns, the first stone-built columns known to historians. The North House also has ornamental columns built into the walls that have papyrus-like capitals. Also inside the complex is the Ceremonial Court, made of limestone blocks that have been quarried and then shaped. In the centre of the complex is the Step Pyramid, the first of 90 Egyptian pyramids.

13. The first Great Pyramid of Giza, the most extraordinary building in history, was a staggering 481 feet tall – the equivalent of a 40-storey building. It was made of 2.3 million blocks of limestone and granite, some weighing 100 tons.

14. The ancient Egyptian city of Kahun was the world’s first planned city. Rectangular and walled, the city was divided into two parts. One part housed the wealthier inhabitants – the scribes, officials and foremen. The other part housed the ordinary people. The streets of the western section in particular, were straight, laid out on a grid, and crossed each other at right angles. A stone gutter, over half a metre wide, ran down the centre of every street.

15. Egyptian mansions were discovered in Kahun – each boasting 70 rooms, divided into four sections or quarters. There was a master’s quarter, quarters for women and servants, quarters for offices and finally, quarters for granaries, each facing a central courtyard. The master’s quarters had an open court with a stone water tank for bathing. Surrounding this was a colonnade.

16 The Labyrinth in the Egyptian city of Hawara with its massive layout, multiple courtyards, chambers and halls, was the very largest building in antiquity. Boasting three thousand rooms, 1,500 of them were above ground and the other 1,500 were underground.

17. Toilets and sewerage systems existed in ancient Egypt. One of the pharaohs built a city now known as Amarna. An American urban planner noted that: “Great importance was attached to cleanliness in Amarna as in other Egyptian cities. Toilets and sewers were in use to dispose waste. Soap was made for washing the body. Perfumes and essences were popular against body odour. A solution of natron was used to keep insects from houses … Amarna may have been the first planned ‘garden city’.”

18. Sudan has more pyramids than any other country on earth – even more than Egypt. There are at least 223 pyramids in the Sudanese cities of Al Kurru, Nuri, Gebel Barkal and Meroë. They are generally 20 to 30 metres high and steep sided.

19. The Sudanese city of Meroë is rich in surviving monuments. Becoming the capital of the Kushite Empire between 590 BC until AD 350, there are 84 pyramids in this city alone, many built with their own miniature temple. In addition, there are ruins of a bath house sharing affinities with those of the Romans. Its central feature is a large pool approached by a flight of steps with waterspouts decorated with lion heads.

20. Bling culture has a long and interesting history. Gold was used to decorate ancient Sudanese temples. One writer reported that: “Recent excavations at Meroe and Mussawwarat es-Sufra revealed temples with walls and statues covered with gold leaf”.

21. In around 300 BC, the Sudanese invented a writing script that had twenty-three letters of which four were vowels and there was also a word divider. Hundreds of ancient texts have survived that were in this script. Some are on display in the British Museum.

22. In central Nigeria, West Africa’s oldest civilisation flourished between 1000 BC and 300 BC. Discovered in 1928, the ancient culture was called the Nok Civilisation, named after the village in which the early artefacts were discovered. Two modern scholars, declare that “[a]fter calibration, the period of Nok art spans from 1000 BC until 300 BC”. The site itself is much older going back as early as 4580 or 4290 BC.

23. West Africans built in stone by 1100 BC. In the Tichitt-Walata region of Mauritania, archaeologists have found “large stone masonry villages” that date back to 1100 BC. The villages consisted of roughly circular compounds connected by “well-defined streets”.

24. By 250 BC, the foundations of West Africa’s oldest cities were established such as Old Djenné in Mali.

25. Kumbi Saleh, the capital of Ancient Ghana, flourished from 300 to 1240 AD. Located in modern day Mauritania, archaeological excavations have revealed houses, almost habitable today, for want of renovation and several storeys high. They had underground rooms, staircases and connecting halls. Some had nine rooms. One part of the city alone is estimated to have housed 30,000 people.

26. West Africa had walled towns and cities in the pre-colonial period. Winwood Reade, an English historian visited West Africa in the nineteenth century and commented that: “There are … thousands of large walled cities resembling those of Europe in the Middle Ages, or of ancient Greece.”

27. Lord Lugard, an English official, estimated in 1904 that there were 170 walled towns still in existence in the whole of just the Kano province of northern Nigeria.

28. Cheques are not quite as new an invention as we were led to believe. In the tenth century, an Arab geographer, Ibn Haukal, visited a fringe region of Ancient Ghana. Writing in 951 AD, he told of a cheque for 42,000 golden dinars written to a merchant in the city of Audoghast by his partner in Sidjilmessa.

29. Ibn Haukal, writing in 951 AD, informs us that the King of Ghana was “the richest king on the face of the earth” whose pre-eminence was due to the quantity of gold nuggets that had been amassed by the himself and by his predecessors.

30. The Nigerian city of Ile-Ife was paved in 1000 AD on the orders of a female ruler with decorations that originated in Ancient America. Naturally, no-one wants to explain how this took place approximately 500 years before the time of Christopher Columbus!

31. West Africa had bling culture in 1067 AD. One source mentions that when the Emperor of Ghana gives audience to his people: “he sits in a pavilion around which stand his horses caparisoned in cloth of gold: behind him stand ten pages holding shields and gold-mounted swords: and on his right hand are the sons of the princes of his empire, splendidly clad and with gold plaited into their hair … The gate of the chamber is guarded by dogs of an excellent breed … they wear collars of gold and silver.”

32. Glass windows existed at that time. The residence of the Ghanaian Emperor in 1116 AD was: “A well-built castle, thoroughly fortified, decorated inside with sculptures and pictures, and having glass windows.”

33. The Grand Mosque in the Malian city of Djenné, described as “the largest adobe [clay] building in the world”, was first raised in 1204 AD. It was built on a square plan where each side is 56 metres in length. It has three large towers on one side, each with projecting wooden buttresses.

34. One of the great achievements of the Yoruba was their urban culture. “By the year A.D. 1300,” says a modern scholar, “the Yoruba people built numerous walled cities surrounded by farms”. The cities were Owu, Oyo, Ijebu, Ijesa, Ketu, Popo, Egba, Sabe, Dassa, Egbado, Igbomina, the sixteen Ekiti principalities, Owo and Ondo.

35. Yoruba metal art of the mediaeval period was of world class. One scholar wrote that Yoruba art “would stand comparison with anything which Ancient Egypt, Classical Greece and Rome, or Renaissance Europe had to offer.”

36. In the Malian city of Gao stands the Mausoleum of Askia the Great, a weird sixteenth century edifice that resembles a step pyramid.

37. Thousands of mediaeval tumuli have been found across West Africa. Nearly 7,000 were discovered in north-west Senegal alone spread over nearly 1,500 sites. They were probably built between 1000 and 1300 AD.

38. Excavations at the Malian city of Gao carried out by Cambridge University revealed glass windows. One of the finds was entitled: “Fragments of alabaster window surrounds and a piece of pink window glass, Gao 10th – 14th century.”

39. In 1999 the BBC produced a television series entitled Millennium. The programme devoted to the fourteenth century opens with the following disclosure: “In the fourteenth century, the century of the scythe, natural disasters threatened civilisations with extinction. The Black Death kills more people in Europe, Asia and North Africa than any catastrophe has before. Civilisations which avoid the plague thrive. In West Africa the Empire of Mali becomes the richest in the world.”

40. Malian sailors got to America in 1311 AD, 181 years before Columbus. An Egyptian scholar, Ibn Fadl Al-Umari, published on this sometime around 1342. In the tenth chapter of his book, there is an account of two large maritime voyages ordered by the predecessor of Mansa Musa, a king who inherited the Malian throne in 1312. This mariner king is not named by Al-Umari, but modern writers identify him as Mansa Abubakari II.

41. On a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324 AD, a Malian ruler, Mansa Musa, brought so much money with him that his visit resulted in the collapse of gold prices in Egypt and Arabia. It took twelve years for the economies of the region to normalise.

42. West African gold mining took place on a vast scale. One modern writer said that: “It is estimated that the total amount of gold mined in West Africa up to 1500 was 3,500 tons, worth more than $­­­­30 billion in today’s market.”

43. The old Malian capital of Niani had a 14th century building called the Hall of Audience. It was an surmounted by a dome, adorned with arabesques of striking colours. The windows of an upper floor were plated with wood and framed in silver; those of a lower floor were plated with wood, framed in gold.

44. Mali in the 14th century was highly urbanised. Sergio Domian, an Italian art and architecture scholar, wrote the following about this period: “Thus was laid the foundation of an urban civilisation. At the height of its power, Mali had at least 400 cities, and the interior of the Niger Delta was very densely populated”.

– See more at: http://www.exposingblacktruth.org/100-things-that-you-did-not-know-about-africa-black-people-and-why-you-should-know-them-now/#sthash.O9hJnce9.dpuf

Fact:NRA overthrew or caused the overthrow of the Obote II government.

I think there is no distortion of history when one says NRA overthrew or caused the overthrow of the Obote II government.On the contrary, the UPC approach of hiding their head in the sand as a major political and military crisis developed has contributed to UPC members being misled about the state of affairs in mid 1985.

It was the same reason UPC’s Administrative Secretary Professor Kagenda Atwooki could leave Kampala in early July 1985 to go to Fort Portal and ‘prepare to contest for elections for parliament in December” without even realizing that Fort Portal had already fallen to the NRA and had to be stopped in Mubende by UNLA soldiers who told that indeed Fort Portal was ‘under the control of the enemy” . That story was all over Uganda House, Kampala and Makerere to the extent that Prof. Kagenda Atwooki actually became a butt of jokes for being someone who could not even read the signs tat is goenrment was collapsing.

The internal collapse of the Obote army was directly related to losses they had sustained in Luwero, where Acholi officers started questioning why the majority of those dying at the front were Acholi.

It was the same reason Brigadier Smith Opon Acak went with a huge wooden bar and nailed shut Brigadier Langoya’s office at Republic House.

These were the events preceding the infamous ‘uncoordinated movement of troops’ as captured by the Vice President and Minister of Defence then.

The bombing of the house of Major Ocero Nangai and the detention of Odong Latek and others, forced Lutwa to take take a decision and call some Lango elders including Yoweri Hunter Wacha Olwol (still alive), to ask Obote to convene a meeting of senior leaders from te two tribes. A meeting was called and guests made to wait till mid nigt only for Obote to turn up and postpone it, forcing Lutwa to lose his. The next day Lutwa took a diversionary trip to Moroto, on the pretext of meeting troops there for a previously arranged program, then went on to Gulu were Bazilio had already hardened his position and was swearing never to return to exile again; which merely hastened the fall of the Obote goernment.

You know fully well that when Bazilio Okello decided that they (Acholi officers and men) were not going to take it anymore and started mobilising troops in Gulu in reaction to orders that were issued to arrest him, Fort Portal had already fallen to Commander Chefe Ali (Elijah Twine) and Commander Fred Rwigyema (Emmanuel Giisa).

Indeed local UPC leaders in Gulu; Yusuf Adek (still alive and you can call him) and Seerino Lanek told Bazilio they could still reconcile him with Obote but Bazilio said Obote had made the army weak and should come to Gulu if he wanted reconciliation. Adek and Lanek actually were given passage to Kampala but could not see Obote for reasons yet unknown.

Or perhaps you did not know but these were the facts. Indeed, Major Okwera of the surrendered UNLA unit in Fort Portal convinced NRA commanders that he can go and talk Bazilio Okello into some form of another ‘solution’ and went straight to Gulu, via Hoima and Masindi, by-passing Kampala. Unfortunately for him, Bazilio had already ordered that any soldiers coming in groups from South of Karuma Bridge were possibly sent by Obote to arrest him and should be shot on sight. That was how Okwera was ambushed and killed near Karuma.

Forget the false stories that Museveni had already fled to Sweden and NRA was fleeing to Zaire by 1985. Only the previous year NRA had in the most humiliating defeat to UNLA, overrun UNLA’s 15th Battlaion and School of Artillery in Masindi, taking almost the entire armoury of UNLA on 20th Febraury 1984. They actually spent nearly the whole day in town before leaving for Luwero Triangle. I happened to be in Masindi that day and saw with my own eyes what happened and straight away knew that Obote was in trouble despite what his politicians and army officers might be telling him.

Here I am referring to the stories peddled then and later and now by Obote’s supporters, as being being mere propaganda. It is true of course that Museveni went to Sweden in March 1985 to see his family which ad been relocated there several months before from Kampala.

If you read the literature of the war quite well, you can even ask Col. Samson Mande who now lives in Sweden and opposes Museveni, that it was a High Command decision that Museveni goes and does some diplomatic work for the NRM/A in Europe since the war was entering a decisive stage. In fact seeing is family was the lesser in importance for Museveni European sojourn at the time but apparently helped with mitigating costs of his stay in Euroe

The NRA firepower had been increased by nearly half only in the previous months through the overruning of Masindi Barracks on 20 February 1984 and you say such a force was weak and now on the verge of defeat?

On 17th March, 1985, the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) Television crew interviewed Museveni on the compound of his wife in Gotenberg, Sweden and he said ” Even now we can kick Obote out of Kampala any time if we want but we do not and will do it at the right time……Tbut there are already signs his own army, having suffered heavily from our victories, may be too tired and can remove him themselves…they may pull it off but but it does not matter to us. We shall remove them when the time comes not too far from now”.

I do know of course that some of us have horned the skills of covering up the truth for so long they actually believe that the more time you tell lies, the more likely it will be believed.

Of course for those of us who studied in Bunyoro and sometimes had to go to Kampala via Luwero to visit family and relatives already had to contend with the spectre of using the road that already been nicknamed by many in northern Uganda as ‘Lam Dogi’ (Kampala-Gulu iway up to around Kafu. Lam Dogi literally meant ‘pray to your God or ancestors before using that road’, because of te numerous ambuses wic killed among oters, my uncle, a UNLA soldier and Ms Achola, sister NRM’s man in Apac District Sam Opio Oceng. Achola was particularly very close to Obote personally.

Again, I happened to be in Masindi and saw just as the Bazilio troops came and took over Masindi without a shot on 25 July 1985 and moved on to Kampala the next day. The talk was that ‘Obote weko Acholi ka too kun Opon tye ka denge ki mato whisky kun mako dok bene nywaro lutino Acholi ki Kampala” (Obote is leaving the Acholi to die at the war front while Opon is boasting around, drinking whisky and arresting and abusing Acholi in Kampala!)

It was never a DP coup because DP had already been emasculated in Kampala and all their Busoga MPs made to ‘cross the floor to UPC’ but Andrew Adimola and Fr. Jon Scalabrini in Gulu and Dr enry Obonyo and oters in Kampala, just took advantage of a situation that was already irreversibly bad to stake some claim to the proceedings.

Did you even know that President Obote in a panicky mode actually sent Prime Minister Otema Allimadi and Dr John Luwuliza Kirunda to Dar es Salaam that last week, to ask Nyerere to deploy TPDF to rescue him and instead Nyerere kept the Obote delegation under virtual detention in a Dar hotel?. Ask Peter Otai in London. Major Butiku (Nyerere’s Personal Assistant at the time) is still alive and you can ask him or Bernard Membe or Prof. Philemon Sarungi or Prof Juma Kapuya about why Nyerere did that.

Therefore any military strategist would tell you that it did not matter by whose bullets Obote was forced out. His army could not have forced him out if they were having it well against the NRA. The only argument could be that perhaps a united UNLA would have taken the NRA a little longer and a few more months to dislodge. But UNLA, whether under Obote or Lutwa-Bazilio, would have fallen all in good time. I had so many relatives in that UNLA and that was their assessment too, though the politicians in Kampala at the time behaved as if nothing serious was going on.

Did you know that even after Kampala had fallen many UPC leaders in northern Uganda never understood that there was a big fallout within UNLA?

This unseriousness could be seen by the farcical visit to Masindi on 20th Februay 1985, by Peter Otai, Chris Rwakasisi, Brig. Smith Opon Acak, Prof Ephraim Kamuntu and Ogenga Otunnu, to ‘commemorate’ the humiliation of UNLA the previous year by NRA at Masindi where their prescription for the humiliation was to appoint a ‘UPC man’ Captain Robert Ssekidde as the new battalion commander to replace the disgraced Major Tom Mukwana, and giving everyone who turned up at Masindi Hotel free beers. They were addressing the symptoms of the malaise, in my view.

For your information, I have many friends who are DP supporters but I have never been a DP supporter just as I have never been a UPC supporter though I have relatives who supported or support UPC. Joseph Ochieno is my friend and I follow his comments in and on European TVs and radios and he even bought me dinner sometime in London.

By the 1980 elections, I was too young to vote but the elections found me visiting a relative somewhere in Apac South Constituency. Truth be told, if I was of voting age, I would have voted UPC in 1980 because of crowd mentality and all that and because I actually thought then that Obote was the answer to our problems, especially after Amin.

But even then no nobody in that constituency exercised their vote because somebody detained DP candidate (and Moses Ocen’s father (Akbar Adoko Nekyon) at a ‘person-specific road block’ on the nomination day soh e could not get nominated and Henry Bobson Milton Okello Makmot ‘went through unopposed’ , as John Peter Onebe read out results on Radio Uganda.

Point being that whether one likes and support Museveni or not, it does not cover up the fact that he caused the fall of Obote, directly and indirectly. The generals he finally kicked out in 1986 were only months before ‘Obote’s generals’ only reinforced by a motley crew of Amin generals, Buganda federalists etc keen to join anything anti-Obote, who promptly changed sides!

This false belief in the strength of a leader made some local UPC leaders in Lango to go around getting cows from locals promising that Obote was coming back in a few weeks and had indeed made it easier by luring Museveni from the bush into Kampala and Museveni would now be removed even more easily.

Emmanuel Amute, Okello Etot, Otim Opul, Boi Oli and others actually did this, even when their rebel group operating in Lango had already been nicknamed by locals as ‘Cel Ibong’ (shoot and ransack the pockets).

They would tell people that proof that Obote was about to return was that he had in a coded message, sent thousands of bicycles then being sold in Lango region with the trademark name Road Master Industries (RMI). They said the RMI mark actually stood for ‘Remove Museveni Immediately’ and the Luo coded version was ‘Ryem Museveni Ilo'(RMI) or ‘case Museveni from Power’.

Billie Kadameri
UAH in Paris

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My Take on the events leading to the Coup of July 1985!


There are many floating questions out there trying to analyze and understand the events prior to and subsequently leading to the July 1985 Coup d’etat against the then sitting UPC government.My brother Billie Kadameri has tried to shed some light but for some reason he concentrated on the effects and not the cause which were numerous as to why the UPC government fell.What I am presenting here are my views as perceived by me and are open to correction by anybody else who has better information than I do. My views are as follows:

1) Most people do not appreciate what a precarious situation the Obote II government inherited after the elections; the country was broke, there was rampant insecurity and non of the key sectors of the economy were functioning.The reason it is important to note this is because some people have given the impression that insecurity and mayhem began only when UPC came back to power. We quickly forget that Nile Mansions had become the place of residence for ministers, NCC legislators and their family’s for security reasons-It was mostly Senior Army officers of UNLA who lived in their residences;
2) Security at the time was maintained by the 40,000 strong TPDF, Tanzanian Police which was not only better armed, trained and disciplined than their Ugandan counterparts but had a better sense of mission. So if security was problem with TPDF how about a young UNLA on it’s own? Would have DP done a better job if they had ascended to power?

UNLA on the hand was originally built by hurriedly amalgamating 22 fighting groups that were working cross purpose with each other into one one ‘National Army.” The truth of the matter was that other than ‘Kikosi Maalum(KM) and Fronansa, the rest were briefcase “fighting groups.”

At the event of the Obote II, it’s (UNLA) numerical strength was about anywhere between 10,000-15,000. For all intent and purpose it was ill trained, under manned, underfunded and under armed for protecting the country’s borders.

For an internal rebellion to happen a few months after the elections within the precincts of the Capitol city was most unwelcome. National armies are usually professionalized during peace times because the setting up of effective chains of command and training requires it so.

3) Due to economic and political pressures at home Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, decided to withdraw the remaining 20,000 TPDF troops. This could have not come at a more inopportune time for the newly installed Obote II government which viewed the rebellion launched by remnants of Fronansa as an existential threat. As a reaction; a massive drive to recruit any willing bodies into the army was launched and that may partially explain the dominance of the Acholi and Langi and to a lessor extent a number of tribes from the East. This rush to recruit also meant that a lot of unsuitable rabble were also absorbed.

With only a few weeks of training many were thrown into the battle field or areas of insurgency and anyone who knows about the time period needed to train a foot soldier, that was a recipe for disaster.

The regrettable events at Ombachi and Luwero could partially be explained away by ill trained and poorly disciplined soldiers at work. I will acknowledge the fact that revenge may have driven some of the soldiers due to Idi Amin’s misrule-It had not happened earlier due to the presence of TPDF;

4) With all the bad cards dealt to the Obote II government, the task of painstakingly creating a National Army could not have fallen to a better person than then Brigadier David Oyite Ojok. The fellow was charismatic and dynamic to say the least, who executed his duties with the required ruthless efficiency.

Two of his known attributes was his respect for his elders and affable character. The secret to his being able to turn the administrative wheels of UNLA was his relationship with Tito Okello. He publicly and privately deferred to Tito Okello even though he was much better educated than he was. Most decisions in the Army were made by Oyite Ojok, who tacitly gave the credit to his Commander who did not contradict him.

Unfortunately his (Oyite’s) successor for whatever reason never saw value in treating the old man with the same respect as his predecessor. Acholi soldiers were dying even under the command of Oyite Ojok, so there was nothing new. So those deaths were used as an excuse to split the Army.

5) During the first year (1981) or thereabouts, three Colonels, Ndaherikire, Peter Oboma (who was Oyite’s neigbor) and someone else were arrested for carrying out treasonous activities. The first two gentlemen for less of a better word were “smoked,” while the third survived because his cousin saved his neck by personally interceding on his behalf.

The third gentleman was none other than Lt. Colonel Bazilio Olara Okello, then Commander of the Central Brigade. This arrest was one of two or so of Bazilio Okello, whose loyalty to the then sitting was questionable from the very beginning on religious and political affiliation grounds.

Tito Okello, who was Bazilio Okello’s cousin using his good rapport with Oyite Ojok, continuously interceded to save his neck. One of the mistakes self admitted by AMO was he did not forcibly retire Bazilio Okello, as the price for not at least charging him with treason. So please ignore what the buffon-in-residnce up in Canda is saying about Bazilio Okello and Oyite Ojok being friends.

Why is all this important to note? Whatever the ethnic imbalances in UNLA Oyite Ojok’s authority was unchallenged. Many of his key Lieutenants were Acholi officers and if one is doubting me, please try and find out about the events around the killing of Oyite Ojok’s younger brother after a freak accident involving a tractor by a Major in UNLA;

6) By 1983 with a lot of of organization and training, UNLA had got its act together and had started scoring major victories against NRA. The running of battle field operations were now under young and educated officers who had returned from Military Academies in Tanzania, UK and India.

Please do not take my word for it but read the accounts of one Dr Warren Kiiza Besigye, who narrates that NRA had been pushed into a corner and had only been protected by the River Kafu as a natural barrier. That changed in 1983, when UNLA crossed with a huge contingent and was preparing for a massive assault which was viewed by many as one that could have been a game changer for both sides with the Obote II government reaping positively.

While on a State visit to India, AMO received a call in the dead of the night that changed his political fortunes from then on. Chris Rwakasisi, then Minister of State for Security, informed AMO that David Oyite Ojok and a number of Senior Army officers had perished in a helicopter crash.

To say that AMO was never the same after that would be an understatement- it was now not a matter if but when. I have heard from some intimate sources that from then on most National Security decisions were actually made by Peter Otai, Chris Rwakasis and John Luwuliza-Kirunda, with Rwakasisi as first among equals. The problem was none of the three held the title ‘President of the Republic.’

7) The killing of Acholi soldiers in Luwero and the succession for the post of Chief of Staff cannot be separated because they were used as an excuse to erode AMO’s authority.

Bazilio Okello, felt that he was the right person to be appointed to the position. Problem was he did not have management skills nor the pedigree to be appointed. What most people do not know was Bazilio Okello was kicked out of the Monduli Military Academy in Tanzania for poor academic performance.

When the new Chief of Staff decided to move against Bazilio Okello, for now reviving his treasonous activities, he did not have the same leeway as Oyite Ojok and thus the down spiral into the events of July 1985.

The falling of Fort Portal and Masindi were due to secret pacts that were sealed by turncoat officers working with Bazilio Okello and company in collaboration with NRA.Proof of UNLA’s improved fighting proficiency can be seen in the fact that the Mbarara and Masaka Garrisons only surrendered to NRA after the fall of the Tito Okello Junta;

8) An uncle of mine by marriage who helped finance NRA during the war told me two fascinating things:

a) at the time of the July 1985 Coup, for every 3 NRA soldiers, one had a gun. By December of that year for every NRA soldier, each had 3 guns, which sounds to high but it explains a total reverse of fortunes within only six months;

b) After capturing power; the NRA Military planners were totally shocked by how much accurate Military and Political intelligence, the UPC government had on them. The only plausible explanation they could come up as to why it was not used against it(NRA) was internal intrigue prevented or undermined effective use by the Obote II government ;

9) As for Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, a man I still highly regard was not blameless at all and actually deserves much of the blame although AMO played his part.
I have had long talks with two of Mwalimu’s Nyerere’s nephews who are very close friends of mine and also a former Prime Minister of Tanzania.

The picture that emerges is a very sad and bitter fallout between two long personal friends and its instructive that the close associates of the two gentlemen have NEVER publicly criticized the other.The reason is that they have been sworn by the two men not to do so and to their credit they have kept their word. That is a story for another day.

10) On hindsight; is there regret by the planners of the 1985? Let me put it this way, if the complaint then that the burden of fighting the NRA was shared unequally and used as a reason to remove a sitting government,it did not take long for the prime actors to realize they had made a huge mistake.

What came next made the complaints against AMO seem mundane.There is a lot I have left out because of time and space.The difference between Obote and M7 is that Obote did not know how to fight his political friends, while M7 does it with gusto.When it comes to power, you do what you have to do to maintain it.The Obote of pre-1969 was psychologically a different person from the one after 1969.

The historical between tension the Acholi and Langi was not unique to the two tribes, all neighboring tribes have issues over land, grazing ground and cultural supremacy.‎ You need to look around most African countries to see what I am saying in practice and I will give the Luo and Luhya in particular as an example.They have their tensions which later translated themselves into ‎the Football arena when AFC Leopards played Gor Mahia but politically especially lately they have the same voting patterns.

Who made the decision to move Bazilio Okello? All I can say it was made in the name of the C-In-C.

I do not know about Lt. Col Peter Obama’s detention in Moroto although it may have been as a result of his treasonous activities which had been found out.

I had never heard of Justine Odongo Latek, until he was appointed to the Military Council.

The fallout between AMO and Mwalimu Nyerere has its roots in the death of the 150 men of Kikosi Maalum in Lake Victoria, Moshi. Conference and haggling over War reparations;

The regrettable activities in Luwero was the political convenient way ‎of explaining away the fallout.

Moses Ocen Nekyon

Desire Luzinda’s photos taught youths about Kiganda culture of visiting Senga.

Desire Luzinda

Desire Luzinda

We all love culture. In Buganda a woman will not be considered fully grown, ready for marriage until she has leaned lessons from senga. And Desire Luzinda sends a lear message that girls must learn our culture like she did.Therefore there is a good side in her revelations.Banyoro have their version of Senga which is built around songs of the Orunyege and amakondeere. The girls sing sexy songs partnered around traditional/ cultural Orunyege and amakondeere melodies. They are very melodious.

These cultures are dying because people like Rev Lakodo, the minister, ignorantly term them criminal pornography. As a reverend he is very ignorant about these things. Indeed, he will die without ever knowing the sweetness in them

In fact the Rev Minister is an enemy of Ugandan culture. Also an enemy of nature. God created these things to be enjoyed by the human race. But the Minister has incriminated them.

These Banyoro songs were taught by Banyoro iswenkazi(sengas) at very confidential locations, like Baganda take their girls at secretive bush(okukyalira ensiko) to be taught in the art of sex so that they can please their husbands. From what Desrie posted on the internet, she must have learned the art very well. Hence her song EKITONE nina AMAKULA.

The Banyoro iswenkazi train our girls in the art of marriage which Rev Minister calls criminal pornography. Perhaps Rev Joseph Kamugisha can prevail upon Rev Likodo to allow genuine training of our girls in the art of sexual performance and he does not brand it pornography.

Indeed, even my book, THE REVOLUTION OF UGANDA’S SEX STYLES CANNOT PRODUCE THE EXACT TERMINOLOGIES AND ILLUSTRATIONS I had originally intended to publish for the training of our people.

So, briefly, Banyoro have their version of senga, known as iswenkazi, and ours is melodious and arouses men instantly. Thesedays Banyoro girls have learnned to do what Desire Luzinda did. So, congratulations to Desire Luzinda for being courageous enough to tell the youth that Kiganda culture is worth living.

The day Rev Likodo will lift the description of iswenkazi’s job as criminal we shall record and sell vedeos of iswenkazis bedroom songos

Henry Ford Mirima
Kibuli, Kampala

UAH Stars of the Year (2014)


It’s time for voting! The most important phase in our annual competition “Ugandans At Heart(UAH)Stars of the Year”.

Based upon nominations that we received from our readers, writers and correspondents, we unveil below a list of nominees for “UAH Stars of 2014″.

The nominees are personalities who have made valuable contributions in several selected fields, making a great impact on their communities and on the world, at the same time writing good articles on UAH.

Please vote for your favorite one from the candidates in each field below by visiting the link below. Voting will be closed in a week from today

After receiving your votes, it will be counted and winners will be announced before Jan 25,God willing!

The person voted as the best writer of the year on UAH will receive a prize of £20 from the UAH founder. It will be sent through money gram.

Vote now and stay tuned to know who the “Stars of 2014” are.

Roots of ethnic conflict and Museveni’s intentional poverty

A case study of Buganda kingdom
By Lubega N (Economic Anthropology Analyst)

Dear Mr. President
The roots of ethnic differentiation therefore are potentially, of ethnic conflict. These conflicts can be economic, religious, linguistic, cultural, or racial. Why do ethnic differences often lead to conflict and violence? The causes include a sense of injustice because of resource distribution, economic and /or political competition, and reaction to discrimination, prejudice, and other expressions of threatened or devalued identity (Ryan 1990, p XXVII).

Today most of my references will dwell so much on Buganda as my case study because am Ignorant about other stake holders of Uganda like Acholi extra, but am not ignorant about what is happening inside my kingdom. This is because; Buganda kingdom is the only kingdom on earth which has kept a non written constitution for over 600 years. That’s why scholars who study human beings like me we usually logically say “Values are more much important than laws in creation of harmony in the society” Discrimination .

This refers to policies and practices that harm a group and its members. Discrimination may be de facto (practiced, but not legally sanctioned).Example of this is the harsher treatment that the baganda tend to get from the public service commission entitled for government human resource recruitment, police and the judicial systems. When Hon. Kyanjo requested the Army to regional balance the top UPDF officers because of the 95% dominance of army officers from your region, you just poisoned him. You constitute an investigation committee on the lord mayor where by, the minister who has ordered the investigation to take place is Tumwebaze, the Judge himself is from the same region, and all the lawyers are from your region where you come from. Remember, ‘’that is the only valued position for this group from the whole political governance”.

Besides that, you are promoting discrimination to disintegrate Buganda by overpowering a few counties to treat themselves as an independent sect from Buganda Kingdom. Recently you called Kamuswaga of Kooki and even issued over 7 billion Ug shillings arguing that it’s for their regional development program. However, you should know that

More than 100 years ago, Kooki signed an agreement a special relationship that dates as far back as 1704 existed between Kooki and Buganda. During that year (1704), two princes from Bunyoro conquered part of Kiziba chiefdom. The elder prince Bwohe sent his young brother to inform the Omukama of Bunyoro about the achievement, but the messenger was killed by an incensed Omukama. Bwohe, who had now established his influence over the area, changed allegiance from Bunyoro to Buganda for protection without any forced assimilation.

Mr. President you are now behaving like the colonialists who came with an agenda of dividing the communities and creating hatred. Your ultimate goal is to weaken [Buganda] kingdom,

You should also know that now 28 years in power, (Buganda kingdom inclusive of Kooki county) have been on your neck to pay the over 20 billion ugs which is an accumulation of office rent by your government in Buganda’s buildings but you have kept a deaf ear…….we are just cached by surprises when your donations target specific sects and persons (inside Buganda) instead of Buganda as an Institution.

Mr. President, in our discipline we say, Institutional discrimination means programs, policies, and institutional arrangements that deny equal rights and opportunities to, or differentially harm members of a particular group. This form of discrimination is less personal and intentional than attitudinal discrimination is. Eg new land laws targeted to harm Buganda, you destroyed our cash crops and food crops i.e. Matooke and Coffee by introducing pests and diseases, also we will remember you always from blocking our king to visit his people of Kayunga Kyagwe County. You said Sabanyala the cultural leader of ABanyala had warned you that, our king shouldn’t visit his territory because had no permission. Here you denied our king the equal rights vested in the constitution .However, we are always cached by surprises to see that even sabanyala doesn’t request permission, when it comes to his travels to the “little land of Buganda you have demarcated for us.”
Forced assimilation. Mr. President, I would like a gain to inform you that there is a great difference between forced assimilation and assimilation. Buganda kingdom all along has been using the assimilation policy. Forced assimilation aims at destroying the cultures of a certain group forcefully. Some dictators have penalized or banned the language and customs of an ethnic group which has created political unrest .

An example is you who want to ban the Luganda language in schools and replace it with Swahili. The second example is the anti-Basque campaign that the dictator Francisco (1939-1975) waged in Spain. He banned Basque language books, news papers, and imposed fines for using Basque language in schools. His policies led to the formation of a terrorist group in the Basque region. I bet Mr. President if you maintain the speed of your yellow bus to kill Buganda, more terrorist groups will be formed.

Genocide: The most extreme form of anti-ethnic (attitudinal) discrimination is genocide, the deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder. The United Nations defines genocide “as acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group as such” .(Ryan 1990,says prejudicial attitudes(hate)and resulting genocide have been directed against people viewed as “Standing in the way of progress”. Mr. President, we wouldn’t like to witness a generation of genocide. You have been always standing in our way of progress. All the above roots of ethnic conflict especially on us may result into a genocide but fueled by you Mr. President .I know your top officers didn’t tell you about what happened on ground during the Kayunga Saga in 2009.What happened is that many people from your region were beaten by angry youth who had made road blocks, many people from your region residing from Buganda closed shops, restuarnts and other businesses in fear of what had happened to their colleagues. All these unrest were fueled by you Mr. President because you have an experience and an upper hand of the Rwanda genocide.

Conclusively therefore, this is my final trumpet to you, to save the innocent Ugandans who have lived in peace and Harmony for a number of decades irrespective of their ethnic differences. STOP YOUR POLICY OF DIVIDE AND RULE AND ECONOMIC, POLITICAL INJUSTICES (BWONYIGIRIZA ENNYINDO, OGILEETA OMUSAAYI).

KENYA:Shocking, draconian laws in Kenya’s proposed Bill on terrorism

This is Uhuru Kenyatta and the first lady Margret Kenyatta back in the days. Is he the coolest Prezzi around? what do you think?

This is Uhuru Kenyatta and the first lady Margret Kenyatta back in the days. Is he the coolest Prezzi around? what do you think?

Time has come for Kenyans leadership to do what some of us have been urging them to do, which is enact tough anti-terror laws to deal with the problem of terrorism. I repeat there is no free lunch so folks, Kenyans MUST be prepaid for some trade-off between security and liberty. The big question is this: what is it they treasure most and how are they likely to maximize whatever it is they desire?

I have to come clean here and say that I have written recently to Kenya authorities with suggestions on the delicate balance between security and liberty, and the need for the type of Omnibus bill now being debated. I took advantage of the knowledge gathered from a conference convened shortly after 9/11 to offer some practical suggestions. BTW, the suggestions are not anti-constitutional because they shall, if challenged be found constitutional.

Once again, liberties are like markets, they exist within very narrow confines. Like markets, liberties cannot exist without an active state aka regulation. Needless to say America has the most competitive economy in the world because it is also the most regulated!. That is correct. So without the tough laws, Kenyans cannot enjoy the liberties they desire.

We cannot sit here in UAH and pretend that the world never changed after 9/11 as painfully illustrated by the CIA report on torture. The business of keeping the majority, okay the good citizens from the bad ones is s not pretty. It is a mess, but it has to be done.

Yes, the Omnibus Bill would give NSIS power to arrest and detain rather than simply pass on information which is not acted on in timely manner. So what is wrong with that? No more excuse fro NSIS.

It is not true that the Bill introduces torture chambers although terrorist or suspected terrorist may be subject to some tough tactics and longer detention.

The Bill also would give the president the power to name the IGP of his or her choice and fire them without hiding behind security of tenure. Why is that generally a bad thing? The fear is that officers will act to please the government rather than make independent decisions. That is one of the trade-offs that must be made.

I pray Jubilee will use its tyranny of numbers to pass the Omnibus Bill and give President Uhuru Kenyatta the tools and discretion he needs to secure Kenyans so they can once again enjoy not just economic rights, but other liberties such as night life, hanging out, working anywhere without fear etc.

BTW, the Omnibus Bill has received the full support of the Catholic and Anglican Churches in Kenya who have urged the legislature to do the right thing to tighten the noose on terrorists.



With concerted efforts from all UAH members, is it possible to overwhelm FB customer service with emails complaining about the closure? Do they have an appeals process for the aggrieved in cases of unfair treatment? We must be having some FB nerds here on UAH who can provide us with some insight of how these things work.


URL: http://www.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_274577061337

John Nsubuga.


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