Attention to all All West Nilers, Itesot and Japadhola’s working in Kampala


All West Nilers, Itesot and Japadhola’s working in Kampala and have not had a chance to study – you can enroll into our programmes in Urban Planning, Surveying we have 50 bursary vacancies for you – call me on 0752-972-960 for further information and pass on this mail to others.

There is a large group of West Nilers who are still hanging around as porters – I hate that when West Niles need lots of banks, hospitals etc., Most Japs and Itesot including young women sit all day guarding buildings- from what!? – let the owners guard their buildings and let the Japs and Itesot go and sit inside and do the business entrepreneurship and management.

It is exactly the same thing when boda boda and taxi drivers stupidly refuse to understand that they can demand a monthly salary and also be members of the National Social Security fund if they heed what KCCA is doing for them.

That type of society is not desirable.Certificates, diplomas and degrees. Masters are taught in Transport Planning by researchers from Leeds Institute for Transport Planning. Certificates in Logistics and Transport from the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport UK (CILT UK) are done on from certificates, diplomas and advanced diplomas. Only difference is that CILT – UK sets it fees. Prof. Emurwon Olupot can help those who need instruction in that field.

I have agreed with International Cartography Association president and head of the Research Group Cartography Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation Vienna University in Austria, to offer a weeks certificate course in Cartography. Those who want to do this course can register with me for September and November workshops.

Bwanika.
Nakyesawa Luwero

TUMWINE AND KEZAALA ARE SO FAR THE BEST MAYORS!


Besides revoking and canceling all land titles in wetlands, those who are settled wetlands and on the shorelines of Lake Victoria should start paying 0.55 tax, equivalent to their property value (2011) plus 0.05 fee equivalent to the property value payable to National Forest Authority or NEMA.. The tax will be progressive for those who have property on Lake Victoria shoreline of all categories (residential, beaches, recreational and hotels etc.). By shores I mean NEMA 100 metres radius along of water bodies (Lake) and 50 metres on streams, subterranean water streams, water springs and rivers within the Greater Kampala Area and all along the shores of Lake Victoria within the territory of Uganda.

In addition, those property owners must have 75 % of their premise land surface, restored and covered with indigenous trees and/or paleo-ecology as it existed before the property was turned into other use. By paleo-ecology I mean letting the flora and fauna flourish and have a total right of way on that premises.

The Baltic sea, that is the ocean between Sweden and Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland was polluted last century with industrial pollutants. For now sixty years, Sweden and other countries with all their scientific rigour and money have tried spending billions of dollars to clean this ocean to no avail. The entire economy based on marine ecology was knocked out!

I have however read about an ambitious 14 Municipal development program now being spear headed by the Urban development ministry – hopefully they MLHUD will have Jennifer’s go getter spirit and do.

The Ministry of Urban Development has also come out with bench marks for cities, municipalities etc., establishment. And please note, politics, politics and racism has killed the spirit for development.

In my opinion, Mayors Wilson Tumwine and Mohammed Baswari Kezaala are the most progressive Mayors I have met so far in this country. They have ideas far ahead of the rest of us for their respective cities. Head to Mbarara and see how the divisions are developing – it Kampala or Mukono.

The government should sit down with these men and ask them about what they want to do. I have listened to all of them.

Kezaala wanted to bring Arabs with their money to see off Jinja City development. Do you really believe all of us can fail to bring developer to Jinja? – Jinja municipal council is ravaged with politics mere political bashing and empty talk – other than doing – this would be the most beautiful place on earth.

Kezaala wanted to remove the old dhukawri from Jinja and build a garden city.

In planning you must have a vision, enthusiasm, and a lots of determination. Those three qualities they have those two men!

The man Kezaala has been frustrated. Why why really? Tumwine has asked for ages to turn Mbarara into a city in order to get a sizable budget funding for development of the town but to no avail- no body listens to these most progress gentlemen – it is disheartening!

_____________________________
Bwanika Nakyesawa Luwero

ALLEGATIONS AGAINST THE KATIKKIRO IN THE OBSERVER ARE BASELESS AND UNFOUNDED


I think it’s wise and civil to respond to this story by the virtue that my name has been mentioned as one of the aspiring MP whom Owek. Katikkiro campaigned for in Kassanda South during the ettoffaali project, these allegations are baseless and unfounded.

What happened in Kassanda South on Wednesday 7th May, 2014? Starting with background of this ettoffaali project, all of you remember very well that sometime back last year, Owek.Katikkiro went to Parliament to collect ettoffaali and after the function, The Weekly Observer published a list of names of 88 names out 90 MPs from Buganda who contributed to the Ettoffaali, the two Mps whose names were missing on the list included the one am going to replace come 2016 my elder brother Hon. George William Nyombi Thembo (Later alone he contributed after the weekly observer story ) and Hon.Peter Nyombi of Nakasongola.

After the Weekly Observer story, due my love for Buganda issues since my days at Makerere University days (1996-1999) I was an active member of Nkobazambogo I felt very important to invite the Ettoffaali Committee to Kassanda South so that the Kabaka’s subjects can contribute themselves because their MP had not contributed as per the Weekly Observer story , so I personally approached the Chairman of the Committee Mr. Fred Kiyimba Freeman, my OB at Makerere University and also an active member of Nkobazambogo by then and requested him that let the Katikkiro and the entire committee come to Kassanda South. I even went one extra mile and offered a luncheon to Owek.Katikkiro and his entire group as per our cultural norms that whenever the Kabaka or his Katikkiro tours his kingdom, one of his subjects voluntary offers a luncheon, so I put that offer before the Chairperson of the committee but unfortunately it was seriously fought by someone who looked at it as political capital for Simeo Nsubuga, so he eat the lunch at Kawungera COU Priest’s house which was Okay. But nevertheless he came to our country home and we hosted him, I mobilized over 2000 fellow residents whom he found waiting for him and contributed handsomely towards the Ettoffaali.

Another reason which inspired me to invite the Ettoffaali Committee was about some of our politicians from Greater Mubende (Mubende, Mityana, Kiboga and Kyankwanzi Districts) who have acted contrary to the interests of the Kabaka and Buganda Kingdom in the most critical hour of need.(Okulya mu Buganda olukwe nokuba Kabaka Omugongo) . You remember very well during the CA making process 1994-1995, it was one politician elders from Mubende who nailed the last nail on Federo debate in the CA. The words “Semusota guli muntamu” are still vivid in our mind. Also just recently in 2010 when the Kabaka’s radio CBS was switched off, it was another politician from Mubende who called the radio “NGULI/OMUGENZI CBS” meaning the late CBS. God is great the Kabaka’s radio is now on air now and the same politician is now using it to air out his views. So an upcoming politician I had to use the Ettofaali Project to prove to the Katikkiro that the people in Kassanda South are royal subjects and behind and ready to support any development programmes being speared by the Katikkiro in the Kingdom and Ettoffaali Project is now priority number one.

Even before the Ettoffaali project, my love and support for Kingdom programmes are very clear for everybody to see, if you remember very well in December, 2012 I mobilized the Kabaka’s subjects form Juba, South Sudan and we contributed over 1 Million Uganda Shillings on the Construction of the Kasubi Tombs, we handed it over to then Kingdom Premier J.B Walusimbi at Bulange-Mengo

Members let us face the reality and naked truth, politics is about capturing any available opportunity and get political capital out of it, it’s about marketing yourself to the voters. There is NO politician in Buganda even in Uganda for that matter who doesn’t want to associate himself/herself with the Kabaka, Katikkiro’s and Kingdom Affairs, all of us we have seen this, so I Simeo Nsubuga of Kassanda South aspirating MP come 2016 I could not miss such a golden opportunity. Thus why the other Friday, 13/06/2014 I had to mobiles all my fellow residents in all the trading centers of Kassanda South along Mityana-Mubende Highway to receive his Majesty the Kabaka on his way to Mubende to open the Massaza Cup and they turned up in large numbers, like at Myanzi Trading Center, he found over 5000 waiting for him since morning, drumming and dancing our traditional dance, with a welcoming banner pinned in the middle of the road welcoming him, he stopped and greeted them and he continued to Mubende, the function went on well, despite the fact that somebody had organized another parallel function at Myanzi Play Ground to counteract ours but he cancelled it immediately and took off after sensing that the people busy waiting for their Kabaka.

So to our MPs especially from Buganda Kingdom under chairmanship of my OB Hon.Godfrey Kiwanda Ssubbi (Mityana North) please don’t cry crocodile tears, just concentrate in your respective constituencies, tell the voters what you have done for them so that they can vote you for the next Parliament, In the same currency also leave us alone to market ourselves to the voters using any available opportunity; the voters will decide come 2016. The truth of the matter which you have to accept not all of you, you see the inside of the 10th Parliament of the Republic of Uganda 2016-2012 actually 40% if not 50% you will not come back, we are going to replace you, we do our part and also go, because you’re not the first nor the last. As the saying goes whatever has beginning has also got end. One time you were elected as a members of parliament and one time you have to leave, either you are tiring Honorably like some of you have indicated that you’re not coming back, or you stick on and we retire you through the ballot box come 2016.

NSUBUGA SIMEO.

Wage rates and productivity are positively correlated, but why are the relevant wage laws not enforced in Uganda?


This note will attempt to answer the raised question of fact (i.e., point of fact) by reference to the relevant material facts and evidence obtained from a case study of our local community found in a country called Uganda, and inferences arising from those facts. And this note will try to answer the posed question of law by applying the relevant legal principles and points of law, derived from the present written law (both national and international) now in force. The subject matter raises several issues of fact and law.

Relevant Factual Background

Wage rates and productivity are positively correlated (Vonderembse & White2004). Wages to workers and labour productivity are positively correlated(Hicks, 1932). Organisations with high productivity can pay higher wage rates (Vonderembse & White 2004). Wage rates and productivity are positively correlated; means that organisations with high productivity can afford to pay their workers better wages because their workers produce more output (Vonderembse & White, 2004) This correlation has implications for companies that are selecting locations for their operations (Vonderembse & White 2004). A country with low wage rates does not necessarily have low unit labour costs because workers in the country may have low productivity (Vonderembse & White 2004). Increases in productivity reduce costs, lower prices, and provide a basis for competing in world markets (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 1993).

To show that wage rates and productivity are positively correlated, a real life scenario of a road construction project was given: if you were asked to move a pile of dirt from one point to another and you were given a shovel and a wheelbarrow to do the work, your productivity would be relatively low (Vonderembse & White 2004). On the other hand, if you were given a bulldozer and proper training, your productivity would be much higher. As you can see, wage rate is not the sole determinant of unit labour cost. The bulldozer operator is paid substantially more than wheelbarrow operators because he does more work (Vonderembse & White 2004). The other important ingredient is productivity or the number of units produced (Vonderembse & White 2004). Productivity improvements, such as, earth moving equipment, are essential for designing and building more goods and services at a much lower cost and they increase our living standard (Vonderembse & White 2004).

A wage is a reward for labour (Ddumba – Sentamu, 2004). A wage is a regular payment to an employee for his or her work,according to the Oxford English Dictionary. A wage is money given to us for thework we do, according to the New Concise English Dictionary. In the factor market, labour is rewarded with a wage or a salary as its price (Mankiw, 2003). An organisation’s compensation structure includes wages (Foot & Hook, 2002). Several words are commonly used to refer to the wages to people at work, and these include the terms ‘compensation’, ‘remuneration,’ ‘reward’ and ‘pay’ (Foot& Hook, 2002). An organisation’s compensation system has an impact on strategic performance (Montemayor, 1996).

One secret for success in organisations is motivated and enthusiastic employees(Grant 1998). Most of today’s organisations develop compensation plans to raise productivity and cut labour costs in a competitive global environment (Daft,2003). Motivation is a powerful tool that can be used to increase productivity in any job that is labour intensive (Vonderembse & White 2004). Employee motivation affects productivity, and part of a manager’s job is to channel motivation toward the accomplishment of organisational goals (Steers and Porter, 1983). Very low wages demoralise workers, as they may feel their work is undervalued (Herzberg, 1968). Offering a decent wage provides an incentive for people in work to improve their performance (Montemayor, 1996).

Productivity is defined as the organisation’s output of goods and services divided by its inputs (Daft, 2003). Productivity is also defined as the ratio of the outputs achieved from an activity to the inputs consumed to make those outputs (Vonderembse& White 2004). This definition,while accurate, does not convey the central role that productivity and productivity improvements have in determining our standard of living.

Productivity means efficiency in industrial production, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. Productivity is often associated with efficiency and lowering costs, which have positive connotations (Vonderembse & White 2004). Labour is one of the four factors of production (Harvey,1988). Productivity measures our ability to produce goods and services compared to the inputs or resources used in the process (Deming, 1982). Production involves the making of goods and services (Ddumba– Sentamu, 2004).

Labour productivity is the output achieved from an activity divided by the labour inputs (Vonderembse,& White, 2004). Labour productivity growth is the only way to raise living standards in the long run, and real wages are the most direct mechanism to transfer the benefits of productivity growth to workers (Bernstein and Mishel, 2007). Labour input is required to produce both wage and labour productivity (Bruce, 2002). A measure of Labour input can either be emeasured in terms of the average number of workers or in terms of the total number of hours worked (Dostie, 2006). The simplest way to measure labour productivity is to measure output per labour output (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 1993).

Productivity is a key to increasing our standard of living (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 1993). Economists believe that productivity growth is an avenue through which to raise peoples’ living standards, and wage growth is expected to track increases in productivity (Cashell 2004). If a company can’t pay its workers enough to live on, then it isn’t a viable business (Henderson, 1985). The minimum wage mostly hangs on the idea that companies have a responsibility to ensure that their workers earn enough money to live on (Grant, 1998). “No business which depends for existence on paying less than living wages to its workers has any right to continue in this country” ~ President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933. There are ways to check whether salaried staff are being paid the minimum wage (Congreave, 2000).

The most direct mechanism by which labour productivity affects living standards is through real wages, that is, wages adjusted to reflect the cost of living (Bruce, 2002). Only labour productivity growth can raise living standards (Bester and Petrakis, (2003). According to economic theory, productivity growth is an avenue through which to raise living standards, and wage growth is expected to track increases in productivity(Cashell 2004).

A relationship between wage rate and productivity may arise through two ways, first of all, where a wage increaseraises efficiency of workers and secondly, a wage increase improves efficiencyof management (Mortensen, 2003). According to the efficiency wage theory, a higher wage rate leads to more efficiency which in turn increases the productivity (Mortensen, 2003). A well planed monetary and non monetary incentive scheme could be perceived positively and likely to increase motivation among the labourers and it leads to improving their productivity (Hicks, 1932).

The different wage policies in the EAC countries are still hard to harmonise which may badly affect the EAC economic integration. For example, in neighbouring Kenya,on the recent Labour Day, President Uhuru Kenyatta’s Govt adjusted and increased the minimum wage by 14% to Sh13, 674 up from Sh11, 995. President Kenyatta said the pay increase was geared to address the needs of the lowest paid workers and cost of living while ensuring a conducive environment for investment and job creation. When foreign policies are different, it is difficult to harmonise common external tariffs and that is a disadvantage to economic intergration (Tayebwa, 2007). Several underpaid and marginalised Ugandan workers find it easy to compare their low wage earnings with workers in other countries doing similar jobs. With regard to the harmonisation of terms and conditions of employment,there is currently no common system of payment in the EAC countries. The different monetary and fiscal policies are still hard to harmonise in the different sovereign East African countries, which apparently have different stages of economic development and industrialisation.

Relevant Statistical evidence gathered:

According to a pilot survey, which was conducted two weeks ago, in Kampala/Kyaddondo and Mukono/Kyaggwe, found in the Buganda region, located in the central part of a country called Uganda, 76% of the interviewed 134 Ugandan operatives(adult and young employed workers), by way of questionnaires, agreed that their current remuneration does not provide them as a minimum, with fair wages to necessary to meet basics like adequate food, clothing, shelter and a decent living for themselves and their families, and also confirmed that their cost of living drastically increased but their wages were not increased. Thepilot survey was conducted to study the extent of wage rates (welfare) and productivity of ordinary workers employed in the construction sector, stone quarrying and sand-digging sector, as well as in the mining, manufacturing and factory sectors. In the pilot Labour Force Survey,67 male and 67 female operatives, between the ages of 20 and 64, were selected and interviewed orally and in writing. Basic quantitative or statistical methods were used for collecting, analysing, summarising and presenting the data. The interviewer used percentages to for making comparison. The statistical investigation had four stages namely (1) pose questions (2) collect relevant data (3) analyse the data and (4) interpret the results.

The statistics principle of Bivariate analysis was applied in the pilot survey, to establish how strong the relationship between the two variables is (correlation) before modelling the relationship (regression). A scatter plot of the collected data was used to investigate, if wage rates and productivity, are positively or negatively correlated. The correlation analysis was used to assess the strength of the linear association that may exist between the two variables (i.e., wage rates and productivity).The results of the study, indicated that wage rates and productivity are positively correlated. The evidence gathered from the study shows that as one variable (wages) increases so does the other variable (productivity), and low values of one variable (wages) are associated with low values of the other variable (productivity) and high value of one variable (wages) are associated with high values of the other variable (productivity, which means that there is a positive correlation. The degree of a perfect positive correlation was also established and illustrated using scatter plots in the study.

LEGISLATION

All organisations are affected by the laws of the country in which they operate (Foot & Hook, 2002). The relevant provisions of the legislation are not in doubt. All public officials are expected to know, understand and comply with the legal requirements that relate to performance of official duties. Legal responsibility defines what society deems as important with respect to appropriate corporate behaviour (Szwajkowski (1985). Laws are basically formalised sets of rules for regulating the behaviour of individuals and organisations in society (Ayres, 1999). All modern societies lay down ground rules, laws, and regulations that businesses are expected to follow (Szwajkowski (1985). Organisations are expected to fulfil their economic goals within thelegal framework (Gellerman, 1985). Organisations ultimately pay for ignoring their legal responsibilities (Daft, 2003). The National Minimum Wage provides some legal protection for the lowest paid groups of workers (Foot & Hook, 2002).

Clearly,the problem is not the absence of laws in Uganda which protect basic working rights like minimum wage, but rather a perceived impunity and/or a conspiracy to prevent or defeat enforcement of the existing written laws that relate to fixing the required statutory minimum-remuneration. The statutory duty of the Executive of Govt, to determine, set and enforce the minimum wage, is well stipulated in the present Minimum Wages-advisory Board and Wages Councils Act, of Uganda. The enforcement provisions in that Statute are not repugnant or inconsistent with the current 1995 Constitution of Uganda, and they are not difficult to be performed or enforced, nor are they incompatible with ratified International Laws. Uganda has International Legal obligations, to protect-basic human rights, such as, the “right to just and favourable remuneration”which provides all workers as minimum with “fair wages” and a decent living for themselves, protected by Article 23 (3) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [“UDHR”], Articles 7 (a)(i)(ii), 9 & 11(1) of International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights [“ICESCR”], Article 5 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights [“ACHPR”], and the Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention which was domesticated by enactment of the present Minimum Wages Advisory Board and Wages Councils Act.

The relevant Constitutional provisions :

The present 1995 Constitution of Uganda is currently the highest form of law in Uganda. Below are relevant law provisions of the Ugandan Constitution, now in force:

Article 2(1) re: ‘Supremacy of the Constitution’ says: “This Constitution is the supreme law of Uganda and shall have binding force on all authorities and persons throughout Uganda.”
Article 17(1)(c) re: ‘duties of citizens’ says: “it is the duty of every citizen of Uganda to protect vulnerable persons against any form of abuse,harassment or ill-treatment.”

Article 17(f) of the Constitution states: “it is the duty of every citizen of Uganda to cooperate with lawful agencies in the maintenance of law and order.”

Article 72(2) provides: “an organisation shall not operate as a political party or organisation unless it conforms to the principles laid down in this Constitution and it is registered.”

Principle XXIX(f) of National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy re: ‘duties of a citizen’ says: “it shall be the duty of every citizen to promote democracy and the rule of law.”
Principle XIV(b) of National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy states: “the State shall endeavour to fulfill the fundamental rights of all Ugandans to social justice and economic development and shall, inparticular, ensure that all Ugandans enjoy rights and opportunities and access to education, health services, clean and safe water, work, decent shelter, adequate clothing, food security and pensionand retirement benefits.”

Principle XXIX(b) of National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy re: ‘duties of a citizen’ says: “it shall be the duty of every citizen to engage in gainful work for the good of that citizen, the family and the common good and to contribute to national development.”

Article 40(2) re: ‘economic rights’ states: “every person in Uganda has the right to practise his or her profession and right to carry on any lawful occupation, trade or business.”

Article 17(1)(g) says: “it is the duty of every citizen of Uganda to pay taxes.”

Article233 (2)(b) (iii)says that the Leadership Code of Conduct shall prohibit conduct which is detrimental to the public welfare or good governance.

Article 29(1)(e) says: “every person shall have the right to freedom of association which shall include the freedom to form and join associations or unions, including trade unions.

Article 160(1) states: “the public debt of Uganda shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund and other public funds of Uganda.” US$6.4 billion is the external public debt of Uganda repayable by all Ugandan workers and taxpayers, including those workers e.g in Mukono/Kyaggwe without access to basic road transport infrastructure for economic activities.

Article 40(3)(c) states: “every worker has a right to withdraw his or her labour according to law.”

Article 25(2) says: “no person shall be required to perform forced labour.”

Article 20(2) says: “the rights and freedoms of the individual and groups enshrined in this Chapter shall be respected, upheld and promoted by all organs and agencies of Government and by all persons.”

Principle XXVIII (i)(b) of National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy re: ‘foreign policy objectives’ says: “the foreign policy of Uganda shall be based on the principle of respect for international law and treaty obligations.”

The relevant International Legal Framework:

The present Government of Uganda is under a duty to comply with its international legal obligations by virtue of being a signatory to the under-mentioned relevant provisions of International Laws and Instruments, now in force:

Article 7 (a)(i)(ii) of International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights [“ICESCR”] states: “the States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work which ensure, in particular remuneration which provides all workers, as a minimum, with fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work; and a decent living for themselves and their families in accordance with the provisions of the present Covenant.”

Article 23 (3) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights[“UDHR”] states:“everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.”

Article 29 (6) of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights [“ACHPR”] says: “the individual shall also have the duty to work to the best of his abilities and competence, and to pay taxes imposed by law in the interest of the society.”

Article 10(3) of ICESCR provides: “young persons should be protected from economic and social exploitation.”

Article 5 of ACHPR says: “all forms of exploitation shall be prohibited.”

Article 9 of International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights[“ICESCR”] provides: “The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance.”
Article of the Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention requires the Govt to adopt measures to fix statutory minimum rates of wages.
Article 11(1) of International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights [“ICESCR”] states: “the States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food,clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions.”

Article 28 of ICESCR provides: “The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to all parts of federal States without any limitations or exceptions.”

Article (3)(a) of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights [“ICCPR”] says: “no one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.”

Article 7(4) of United Nations Convention against Corruption [“UNCAC”] requires State parties to establish measures and systems requiring public officials to disclose to appropriate authorities their outside employment or activities, or investments and substantial gifts, that conflict with official Government duties and responsibilities and from which a conflict of interest may result with respect to their functions as public officials. This conflict of interest rule applies to public officials on the taxpayers’ public pay roll, but at the same are shareholders, beneficiaries and directors in companies in the private sector, allegedly with low productivity and paying extremely low wages to their workers.

The Relevant Statutory provisions of Uganda:

Below are the existing criminal and civil law provisions, in Uganda that relate to wage rates and labour, now in force:

Section 392(a) of the Penal Code Act created a discrete criminal offence against any person who conspires with another to prevent or defeat the execution or enforcement of any written law.
Article 238 of the Penal Code Act forbids assaulting any person pursuing to raise the rate of wages.
Section 15 of Minimum Wages Advisory Board and Wages Councils Act provides:“an authorised officer may, if it appears to him or her that a sum is due fro man employer to an employee by reason of a failure to pay remuneration not less than the statutory minimum remuneration,institute on behalf of and in the name of that employee proceedings by civil suit for the recovery of that sum.”
Section 46(1)(a) of the Employment Act says: “deductions from remuneration due to an employee are permitted in respect of any tax, subscription or contribution imposed by law.”
Section 116 of Penal Code Act forbids disobedience of statutory duty. E.g. the Govt is under a statutory duty to adjust and fix the minimum wage under the Minimum Wages Advisory Board and Wages Councils Act of Uganda
Section 14 of the Minimum Wages Advisory Board and Wages Councils Act provides a penalty for failure to pay the fixed statutory minimum wage.
Section 309 of the Penal Code Act forbids any person from conspiring with another by deceit or any fraudulent means to affect the market price of anything publicly sold, or to defraud the public or any person. E.g. the price of labour on the labour market.

Section 252 of the Penal Code Act created the statutory crime of unlawful compulsory labour
Section 251 of the Penal Code Act created the offence of inducing a person to give up himself or herself as a slave.

Section 52(1) of the Penal Code Act forbids acts or omissions which incite a delay or refusal for payment of a lawful tax.

Section 307 of the Penal Code Act created the criminal offence of cheating against any person who by means of any fraudulent trick obtains from any other person anything capable of being stolen.

Section 129 of Traffic and Road Safety Act forbids actions or inactions which impede the progress of any motor vehicle, by which damage might be caused to the motor vehicles of persons. E.g several groups of worker are incurring heavy vehicle repair costs and experiencing mobilities difficulties due to travelling on unsafe and potholed murram/feeder public roads.
Section 19(1) of Minimum Wages Advisory Board and Wages Councils Act states:“where a minimum rate of wages and other conditions of employment have been determined in accordance with this Act and become effective in respect of any person or persons, every authorised officer shall have power to require the production of wages sheets or other records of wages kept by an employer.”
Section 21 of Minimum Wages Advisory Board and Wages Councils Act created as penalty for making false entries or records of wages.
Section 326 of the Penal Code Act forbids fraudulent false accounting.

The relevant Commonwealth Common Law or Case Law:

In Beveridge v KLM (UK) Ltd [2000] the court’s position was that, subject to any express or impliedagreement to the contrary an employee’s right to pay is in return for willingness and availability to work.

In Milesv Wakefield Metropolitan District Council [1987] the courts established a principle that: “an employee’s right to remuneration depends on his doing or being willing to do the workthat he was employed to do and if he declines to do that work the employer neednot pay him.”

In Inland Revenue Wales & Midlands vBebb Travel plc [2002] the court held: “under the enforcement provisions inthe National Minimum Wage Act, a compliance officer may serve an enforcementnotice only in respect of current or future failures to pay the minimum wage.”

In Unisonv United Kingdom [2002] the courts ruled that legislation limiting strike actionto trade disputes between existing workers and their current employer was heldto be in breach of the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
In Her Majesty’s Commissioners for Revenue & Customs v Rinaldi-Tranter [2007] the Employment Appeal Tribunal held that a trainee was entitled to the national minimum wage.
In Edmondsv Lawson QC and others [2000] the court declared that “a pupil barristerwho had attained the age of 26 was a “worker” within the meaning ofthe National Minimum Wage Act because she was employed under a contract of apprenticeship.”
In R(International Transport Roth GmbH) v Secretary of State for the HomeDepartment [2002], Simon Brown LJ observed: “the court’s role under thehuman rights legislation is as the guardian of human rights.”

DISCUSSION

Although wage and other costs of employing people can vary between different areas in any country, it is more likely to be a significant factor when international-comparisons are made (Slack and Lewis, 2002). Labour is one of the factors considered by managers making business-location decisions (Schmenner, 1982).Two factors can influence labour costs.The first is the productivity of labour. This is often inversely related to labour costs, which means that the average amount produced by each individual-employed in a given unit of time is greater in countries with higher labour-costs (Slack and Lewis, 2002).. This is at least partly because in countries with high labour costs there is more incentive in productivity-enhancing technology.

The second factor which influences the productivity of labour is the rate of exchange of countries’ currencies (Slack and Lewis, 2002). According to Prof.Ddumba-Sentamu (2004), the exchange rate means the rate at which one currency is exchanged for other countries. Changes in exchange rate can have major implications for the profitability of international operations that exchange-millions of dollars into other currencies every day (Kogut, 1985). The exchangethe rate is the rate at which one country’s currency is exchanged for another country’s(Daft, 2003). It is the second factor which influences labour productivity (Slackand Lewis, 2002).

There-are both wage and non-wage costs of employment in a number of countries (Slackand Lewis, 2002). Wage costs mean those costs to the organisation of paying wages directly to individual employees (Slack and Lewis, 2002). Non-wage costs are the employment taxes, social security costs, holiday payments, and other welfare provisions which the organisation has to make in order to employ people. (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 1993)

For most firms the largest and most important expense they face is their wages and it there foreneeds to be controlled carefully (Burns, 2001).. According to Paul Burns(2001), for many firms this is most easily measured by the simple percentage ofwages to sales. However, with break-even, as a firm grows, its wage costs tendto increase, and wages are often best measured in relation to the productivitythat they generate (Burn, 2001).

Whereas wage rates and productivity are positively correlated, Uganda still has the lowest productivity and wage rates in the East African Community (EAC), according to a survey that was conducted recently. This means that improvements on wage ratesand productivity are required. As productivity increases, organisations can do the same work with less effort or can do more work with the same effect (Chew,1988). Productivity can be improved be by either increasing the amount ofoutput using the same level of inputs or reducing the number of inputs requiredto produce the output (Deming, 1982).

Enhancing productivity can be done by human resources, learning and expertise, job designand work measurement, technology innovation, automation, economy of scale andbusiness process redesign (Nelson, 1993). Computers together with technicalpersonnel qualified and skilled in business information systems (informationtechnology), can be applied to improve productivity in manufacturing and service operations (Hill, 1993). Labour is, of course, not the only input into production (Mankiw (2003). Capital is the other major input (Harvey,1988). Transport infrastructure is another vital catalyst. A country’s physical facilities that support economic activities make up its infrastructure, which includes transportation facilities such as roads,airports, harbours, railroads, among others (Daft, 2003).

In improving the standard of living, productivity is more important than moneybecause productivity determines the output while money measures the value ofthe output (Vonderembse & White 2004). In essence, money is a way to keepscore for organisations and individuals. The example of castaways is given;they consume only consume what they produce. The same is true for our society.The money does not create a single glass of water or one bit of food. It isonly specialisation of labour, automation, and technology that productivity canbe improved and the wealth of society can be increased (Vonderembse & White2004).

Whenan organisation decides that improving productivity is important, there arethree places to look: worker productivity, technological productivity andmanagerial productivity (Daft, 2003). Increased worker productivity meanshaving workers produce more output in the same time period. Worker productivitycan be enhanced by motivating employees (Daft, 2003)

Productivity improvements are beneficial to workers (labour), organisation and to consumers. In fact, productivity is essential for improving peoples’ living standards (Vonderembse, 2004).. In many cases,when firms seek productivity improvements, trade-offs between the inputs occur.Managers may be trading capital for labour, capital for energy, or material forlabour in order to get an overall increase in productivity (Chew, 1988).

Often there are industry norms that can be used to measure productivity (Burn, 2001). To assess productivity, it is essential to define and the inputs and the outputsfor the process or activity (Deming, 1982). The primary inputs to production are labour (workers, managers, andexternally purchased services), capital (land, facilities, and equipment), andmaterials, including energy (Vonderembse, 2004).

Infact, some businesses are more concerned only with measuring labourproductivity because it is easy to calculate and many managers believe it isone factor under their direct control (Bester and Petrakis, 2003)Labour is often measured as the number of units produced per hour (Hill,1993).Labour productivity is probably the most obvious input in the productivityequation (Vonderembse,& White, 2004).The equation ofcalculating labour productivity is: labour productivity = units produced (or value of units produced)divided by labour hours (or labour cost) (Slack, Chambersand Johnston, 1993).

Fair wagesdo improve staff morale and motivationand therefore productivity (Henderson,1985). Motivation is highest whenequity exists and outcomes are distributed to workers on the basis of theirinputs to the organisation (Gray and Starke, 1988). Unmotivated workers do the minimum amount ofwork, causing product and service quality to suffer and the organisation to loseits competitive edge (Hayes and Wheelwright, 1984). Good hygiene factors (e.g. fair wages and goodworking conditions) and motivators (e.g. opportunity for growth, achievementand recognition) prevent employee dissatisfaction and increase satisfaction (Hymowitz,2000).

Human resource managers design the pay and benefits system to fit company strategy and provide compensation equity (Daft, 2003).The equity theory of workmotivation was developed in the 1961 by J. Stacy Adams. Equity theory is aprocess about work motivation that focuses on workers’ perceptions of thefairness of their work outcomes and inputs. Equity exists when a worker’soutcome/input ratio equals the outcome/input ratio of the referent (Martin,Melanie & Peterson (1987). Equity means fairness according to the OxfordEnglish dictionary. Inequity means unfairness.

The opposite of equity is inequity, or lack of fairness, which exists whenoutcome/input ratios are not proportionally equal (George & Jones, 2002). Inequity creates tension and unpleasant feelings inside a worker and a desire to restore equity (Hymowitz, 2000). Inequity motivates the individual worker to try to restore equity by bringing the two ratios back into balance (Grayand Starke 1988). There are two typesof inequity: underpayment inequity and overpayment inequity (Torrington and Weightman, 1993). Overpayment inequity exists when anindividual employee perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is greaterthan that of a referent (Grayand Starke 1988).

Underpayment inequity exists when a person perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent (Gray and Starke 1988). When workers perceive underpayment inequity, for example, they can restore equity by reducing inputs such as effort (Lawler, 1990). An underpaid work may try to change his or her outcomes by asking for a raise in wage to restore equity (Gray and Starke 1988). In order to restore, an underpaid worker can leave the job or organisation or force the referent to leave – the most common example of this approach is employee turnover, and, not surprisingly, leaving the organisation or company is most prevalent in situations of underpayment inequity (George& Jones, 2002). Thus the worker maybe motivated to look for a job elsewhere or start up his or her own small business.

According to Stacy Adams (1965), equity theory is based on the premise that a worker perceives the relationship between outcomes, what the worker gets from a job and organisation, and inputs, what the worker contributes to a job and organisation. Inputs include time, special skills, effort on the job, training,education, work experience, time and anything else that workers perceive that they contribute to an organisation (Adams,1965). Outcomes include pay, job satisfaction, job security, opportunities for advancement and anything else that workers get from an organisation. (Adams, 1965).

Job design involves the application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction (Daft, 2003). In 1911, Frederick W. Taylor published one of the earliest approaches to job design, “The Principles of Scientific Management”(Taylor, 1911). Taylor was concerned that workers were slacking off and not performing as highly as they should on their jobs (Farnham , 1997). Scientific Management, a set of principles and practices stressing job simplification and specialisation, was developed by Taylor to increase the performances of individual workers (Claude George, 1968).

Scientific management has been instrumental in helping organisations to implement worker effectiveness and productivity (Kanigel, 1997). Scientific management, one of the first approaches to management, focused on the efficiency of individual workers (Kanigel,1997). Frederick Winslow Taylor is most closely identified with this approach. Taylor developed an interest in efficiency and productivity (Wren, 1987). While working as a foreman at Steel Company in Philadelphia from 1878 to 1890, he became aware of a phenomenon called soldiering – employees working at a pace much lower than their capabilities (Taylor, 1911). Because most managers had never systematically studied jobs in the plant – and, in fact, had little idea how to gauge worker productivity – they were completely unaware of this practice. To counteract the effects of soldiering, Taylor developed several innovative techniques. For example, he scientifically studied all the jobs in the Midvale plant and developed a standardised method of performing each task, and also installed a piece-rate pay system in which each worker was paid for the amount of work that each individual work completed during the workday rather than fo rthe time spent on the job (Wren, 1987).

Frederick Taylor (1856-1925) developed a body of principles which came to be known as“Taylorism” (Wren,1987). Taylor analysed each job by breaking it down into its component parts and then designed the quickest and best methods of operation for each part (Taylor, 1911). By doing this he was able to establish how much workers should be able to with equipment and materials available, and how far pay could related to levels of productivity (Claude George, Jr, 1968). This process developed into a differential wage rate system based on greater pay for greater productivity which in turn,would lead to greater profits. The higher payments would continue, Taylor thought, because-they were scientifically correct rates set at a level that was best for the company and the worker. Increased profits would encourage companies to expand and ensure continued employment for those workers able to meet the required productivity standards. Taylor introduced rest periods during the working day and a differential pay rate-system. The results were increases in productivity, quality, earnings and morale and a fall in costs (Farnham , 1997)

Taylor believed that money was the only important motivational factor, in the work place. These innovations boosted productivity markedly and are the foundations of scientific management(Green, 1993). His book “Principles of-scientific Management” published in 1911, was greeted with enthusiasm practicing managers and quickly became a standard reference. Scientific management quickly became a mainstay of business practice. It also demonstrated to managers the importance of enhancing performance and productivity (Kanigel,1997).

If a conclusion can be drawn from the factual issues tackled discursively, it would be that the evidence obtained from all case study projects undertaken, reveals that wage rates and productivity are positively correlated. As one variable (wages) increases so does the other variable(productivity), and low values of one variable (wages) are associated with low values of the other variable (productivity) and high value of one variable(wages) are associated with high values of the other variable (productivity,which means that there is a positive correlation. Clearly, the problem is not the lack of laws in Uganda which protect basic employment rights like minimum wage, but rather a perceived impunity and/or refusal to implement and enforce those law.

Bibliography and further reading:

· Bruce, C. (2002) “The Connection between LabourProductivity and Wages,” Economica Newsletter

· Bernstein, J. and Mishel.L (2007) “Economy’sGains Fail to Reach Most workers’ Paychecks,” EPI Briefing Paper, September.

· W. Bouce Chew, “No-Nonsense Guide to MeasuringProductivity,” Harvard Business Review (January-February 1988)

· Maynard, R (1997). “How to Motivate Low-WageWorkers,” Nation’s Business.

· Ddumba – Sentamu, J (2004). 1stEdition. “Basic Economics for East Africa.” Kampala: FountainPublishers.

· Hill, T (1993). 2ndEdition.“Manufacturing Strategy: the strategic management of manufacturingfunction.”London:Macmillan.

· Bester, H. and E. Petrakis, E (2003). “Wages andproductivity growth in a competitive industry,” Journal of Economic Theory,Vol. 109, pp. 52-69.

· Tayebwa, M.B (2007). 4thEdition.“Basic Economics.” Kampala:Genuine Researchers and Publishers.

· Dostie, B. (2006). “Wages, Productivity andAging,” Institute for the Study of Labour, Working Paper Series.

· Congreave, I (2000). “How to apply NMW rules tosalaried staff.”Personnel Management, Vol.6, No.16, Pp.44-45

· Vonderembse, M.A & White G.P (2004).“Operations Management.” New Jersey:John Wiley & Brothers, Inc

· Brush, T.H, Martin, C.A and Karnani, A (1999).“The plant location decision in multinational manufacturing firms: an empiricalanalysis of international business and manufacturing strategy perspectives”,Production and Operations Management, Vol.8

· Slack N., Chambers, S and Johnston, R (1993).3rdEdition. “Operations Management.”London:Prentice-Hall

· Mankiw N. G (2003). “Macroeconomics,” 5thEdition. New York:Worth Publishers.

· Steers, R.M and Porter, L.W (1983).3rdEdition. “Motivation and Work Behaviour.” New York: McGraw-Hill.

· Blanchard,O., and L. Katz, (1999). “Wage Dynamics: Reconciling Theory and Evidence,”American Economic Review, Vol. 89(2), pp. 69–74, May.

· James E. Martin and Melanie M. Peterson (1987).“Two-Tier Wage Structures: Implications for Equity Theory,” Academy of ManagementJournal.

· Mortensen, D. (2003), “Wage Dispersion: Why AreSimilar Workers Paid Differently?” Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 105, PP255-283

· Nelson, R.R (1993). “Why do firms differ, andhow does it matter?”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol.12

· Kay, J (1993). “The foundations of CorporateSuccess.”Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress

· E. Malinvaud, E. (1977). “The Theory ofUnemployment Reconsidered.” Oxford:Basil Blackwell

· Ayres, R (1999). “The essence of professionalissues in computing.” Reading:Person Education.

· Kanigel, R (1997). “The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylorand the Enigma of Efficiency.” New York: Viking

· Bruno, M and Sachs, J. D (1985). “The Economicsof Worldwide Stagflation.”Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress

· Szwakowski, E (1985). “OrganisationalIllegality: Theoretical Integration and Illustrative Application.” Academy of Management Review

· Shellenbarger, S (2000). “Companies Are FindingReal Payoffs in Aiding Employee,” The Wall Street Journal, 11 October 2000

· Harvey, J(1988).8th Edition. “Modern Economics.” London: Macmillan.

· Bert G. Hickman, B.G (1987). “Real wages,aggregate demand and unemployment,” European Economic Review

· Gellerman, S.W (1989). “Managing Ethics from theTop Down.” Sloan Management Review.

· Armstrong, M (1999). 2ndEdition.“Employee Reward.” London.CIPD

· Anderton, A (2000). “Economics.” London: Causeway Press.

· Haslett, P and Palmer, S (2001). “Hard tocontain,” People Management, Vol.7, NO.11

· Uganda Bureauof Statistics (UBOS) (2014). 2002 UgandaPopulation and Housing Census – Main Report, April 2014, Kampala, Uganda.

· Ann Podolske, “Giving Employees a Voice in PayStructures,” Business Ethics (March-April 1998), 12.

· Montemayor, E (1996) “Congruence Between PayPolicy and Competitive Strategy in High-Performing Firms,” Journal ofManagement 22, No.6

· Paul Burns (2001). “Entrepreneurship and SmallBusiness.” London:Palgrave Macmillan

· Henderson, R.I(1985).4th Edition. “Compensation Management: RewardingPerformance.” Reston, Va:Reston.

· Hymowitz, T (2000). “The Greatest Sources ofSatisfaction in the Workplace Are Internal and Emotional,” Fast Company

· Gray, J.L and Starke, F.A (1988). 4thEdition. “Organisation Behaviour: Concepts and Applications.” New York: Macmillan.

· George, J.M and Jones, .G.R (2002).“Understanding and Managing Organisation Behaviour.” London: Macmillan

· Deming, W.E (1982). “Quality, Productivity, andCompetitive Position.” Cambridge,Mass: Center for Advanced Engineering Study, MIT.

· Herzberg, F (1968). “One More Time: How Do YouMotivate Employees?” Harvard Business Review.

· Wren, D.A (1987). “Management History: Issuesand Ideas for Teaching and Research,” Journal of Management.

· Todaro, M & Smith (2003). 8thEdition. “Economic Development.” London:Addison Wesley.

· Lawler, E.F (1990). “Strategic Pay: AligningOrganisational Strategies and Pay Systems.” San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

· Cashell, B, W. (2004). “Productivity and Wages.”Congressional Research Service. Conell: Cornell University.

· Linda Grant “Happy workers, High Returns,”Fortune (January 12, 1998), 81.

· Schmenner, R.W (1982) “Making Business LocationDecisions.” New Jersey:Prentice Hall.

· Hayes, R.H and Wheelwright, S.C (1984)“Restoring our Competitive Edge.” New York: Wiley.

· Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis (2002).“Operations and Strategy.” Harlow: PearsonEducation Limited

· Ferdows, K (1989) “Mapping international factorynetworks,” Amsterdam:Elsevier Science Publishers.

· Kogut, B (1985). “Designing Global Strategies:Looks from Operational Flexibility,” Sloan Management Review 27.

· Larry, M.A and Burns, J.R (1985). “ManagementScience.” New York:Macmillan.

· Rothlisberger, J.F and Dickson, W.J (1939).“Management and the Worker.” Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

· Green, R.J (1993). “Person-Focussed Pay: ShouldIt Replace Job-Based Pay?” Compensation and Benefits Management 9, No.4.

· Claude S. George, Jr (1968). “The History ofManagement Though.” EnglewoodCliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

· Griffiths, A.,& Wall, S. (1999). “ Applies Economics.” London: Longman

· Burningham, D., and Davies, J., (1999). 2ndEdition. “Green Economics.”London:Heinemann Educational.

· Hicks, J. (1932). “The theory of wages.” London: Macmillan

· Taylor, W.F(1911). “Principles of Scientific Management.” N.J: Prentice-Hall.

· Munday, S (2000). “Markets and Market Failure.” London: HeinemannEducational.

· Farnham , A (1997). “The Man Who Changed WorkForever,” Fortune.

· Torrington, D andWeightman, J (1993). 2nd Edition. “Effective Management: People andOrganisation.” London:Prentice Hall

· Adams, J.S(1965). 2nd Edition. “Injustice in Social Exchange.” New York: AcademicPress.

· Foot, M & Hook, C (2002). “Introducing HumanResource Management.” Harlow: PearsonEducation Ltd.

· Daft, R.L (2003). 6th Edition.“Management.” Ohio:Thompson Learning.

· Wredge C.D and Stoka, A.M (1978). “Cooke Createsa Classic: The Story behind F.W Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management,”Academic of Management Review.

But why is this a big problem under NRM and Museveni?


Why build such a big house leading you to bankruptcy? Are you Ugandans insane? This guy was minister between 2001-06 getting double salary as MP and minister but still borrowed money mbu to boost his bus business.MPs get paid 20m/month why would an MP sink in debts if a teacher who earns 300k doesn't borrow?

Why build such a big house leading you to bankruptcy? Are you Ugandans insane? This guy was minister between 2001-06 getting double salary as MP and minister but still borrowed money mbu to boost his bus business.MPs get paid 20m/month why would an MP sink in debts if a teacher who earns 300k doesn’t borrow?


Guys,
James Onen nailed it on 25th June 2014 in Sanyu’s morning show – that many middle class goons on Kampala live an artificial life in which they want to impress others. People have been swallowed into a culture of ‘consumerism’ to service the pervasive habit of ‘showing off’. As a result, they are increasingly in need of money to sustain their lie of a life. As a result, the banks and money lenders are laughing their way to the bank as people are trapped in debt. Others rent 2 million a month flatlets, with 2 nice cars but not a single saving. This is the new form of innumeracy: Financial illiteracy. He concludes: ‘Modesty is strength’.

I remember, bank agents could come to you and tell you that going by your salary level they can get you a 5-year loan of 30M/= within 2 working days! Now, if you are not careful or calculative, you can easily fall into that debt trap! I usually say that life is the best judge.Problem started around 2002/3 with the advent of salary-based loans or a few years earlier when Shoprite came to town and started Hire-Purchase schemes. Suddenly, you could get that music system, fridge, TV, double-bed that you couldn’t buy for yourself without strict saving discipline (and for many months).with time the culture set in as more providers/recipients came on board………..Its something we didn’t know in Uganda! its now good that insurance companies have come to the aid of salary-based loan recipients, otherwise you could harshly find out the other side of banks (and court bailiffs) when you lost that corporate job. We all make decisions in our lifetime and come the time when we hit 60s and 70s we shall be in a better position to judge who made better decisions while growing up. For now, its an open field.

And the new trend of continuously acquiring all sorts of additional academic papers (MAs & MSc’s). Studying that would equip one with ‘skills’ is good but not this in disciplines so different and irrelevant from what one can practice.All that aiming at promotions and job hunting whose return on investment is a joke!

Resources that would start up a longterm selfhelp project are squandered during one’s productive years.

All this stems from our open embracing of the Capitalist systems. They are inherently designed to run on spending power of people. In America, when spending reduces among the people, the economy takes a very big hit. So, the idea that you will spend beyond your means is also good for me as an employer because it means that my employees will not easily jump ship and can only do so when they have better deals. Bing in debt is an incentive to create economic slaves. Capitalism is there to benefit the owners of the resources (Queen Bees) not the generators of the wealth (worker bees). The situation is definitely going to get even worse. So, while some workers are noticing it and becoming wiser, most will not, to the joy of the Queen Bees.

But why is this a big problem under NRM and Museveni? In previous generations, a child would be raised by family and even upon completing school/university, the family would continue guiding the young adult on success management. A young adult had role models or people to look to which forced living a responsible life; not to fall in traps of bizarre behaviour (like being a spendthrift, indiscipline or ‘wannabe – showoff’) despite having a good education, job or earning big. Could there be a disconnect now, where young ‘successful/Corporate Lie’ adults are not in touch with elders/family to seek guidance and wisdom anymore?

My observation is that successful young adults that remain close to their families tend to be more responsible and less wasteful than the ‘arrivalists’ living a Corporate Lie! Just my observation.

H.O

H.O

TOORO’S REACTION REVEALS THE TRUTH BEHIND ‘KINGDOMS’


tooro

Tooro’s reaction to the coronation of a Bamba King betrays the ugly side of man: the animal instinct to conquer and dominate. This is the truth behind all imperialism, whether it crosses oceans as was the case with the Romans , the Ottomans and the English, or it is conquering neighbours as it was the case with Tooro and Bukonzo, Bwamba. Only yesterday Tooro was up in arms demanding the return of her property by government, the same move Bukonzo is protesting. Then Bukonzo, which vehemently fought against Tooro domination, is also against Bwamba being a kingdom. The Buganda story with her donated ‘counties'( Kooki, Bunyala, Buruuli, Lost Counties), is all too glaring and will not go away.

Self-determination is for everybody. What makes Kaliba think that only Batooro women have wombs to produce kings? Tooro itself was ‘made’, and that was the starting point of its kings being ‘born’. So effective today, Bwamba’s kings will be born, as successors to King Atongi. If Tooro wants diversity in one kingdom, can they accept the rotational arrangement as it is done in Busoga? This would see kings coming from all the nationalities in the ‘larger’ Tooro kingdom on rotational basis: Batooro, Batuku, Basongora, Bakonzo, Bamba, Batwa and recently Bakiga.

Kaliba knows well the history and meaning of ‘ Twena tuli Batooro’ , and ‘ Omutooro Proper’

Actually myself am comfortable with an ‘elected’ king, one who is chosen on the basis of his individual personal capacity and merit, not because he is a son of his father. This the new form of theocracy, where leaders are anointed,even from humble families, to lead their people. Theocracy is a better system, than ‘democracy’ which has become rule by money( the highest bidder, often with stolen money, wins), or monarchy, where one is a leaders by virtue of being a son/daughter of their father.
Am sure King Atongi will make a better leader to his people, since his kingship is not by ‘right’, rather by obligation.

Sandra Birungi
Kampala

HOW DO U FEEL ABOUT BEING SPIED ON BY YOUR GOVT ESPECIALLY IF YOU ARE INNOCENT?


Snowden-NSA-Article-Washington-Report
Many Americans were not surprised by recent revelations, based on documents taken by former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden, that the NSA is spying on them. The widespread use of undercover agents, informants, and surveillance in Muslim-American communities has been well publicized.

In the months after the 9/11 attacks, President George W. Bush authorized eavesdropping on domestic telephone, Internet, and e-mail communications of Americans and others inside the US without court approval.

Information about Bush’s “Terrorist Surveillance Program” was leaked to USAToday and The New York Times in 2006. Americans learned that telecommunications companies, including AT&T, MCI, Sprint, Verizon, and BellSouth, were handing over to the NSA personal and business phone records for tens of millions of Americans.

Under US law, the NSA cannot legally target US citizens — although the agency has done precisely that and has been rebuked by federal judges for doing so.

The program was criticized and challenged as illegal because the NSA had not obtained warrants from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance (FISA) Court. Bush’s program was discontinued in 2007.

According to a stunning series of reports, first published on June 5 by The Guardian, The Washington Post, and other media outlets, under President Barack Obama the NSA has continued collecting the phone records of millions of Americans.

A top-secret court order issued on Apr. 25, 2013, also released by Snowden, required Verizon, on an “ongoing, daily basis,” to give the NSA
information on all telephone calls in its systems, both within the US and between the US and other countries.

In Uganda, some people are being spied on too by security agencies. Unfortunately, most of these are innocent, but sometimes govt of Uganda uses such info to concoct charges against them.

What is the best way to structure a spying agency in a developing country such as Uganda?

How do we protect innocent Ugandans from falling victim of security agents that concoct charges against them, mainly with the sole purpose of pleasing president Museveni?

THE MAGIC HEALING OF ONIONS!


A friend of mine told me a story about when he was a kid he was in the hospital & nearly dying. His grandmother came to the hospital & told a family member to go buy her a large onion & a new pair of white cotton socks. She sliced the onion open then put a slice on the bottom of each of his feet & put the white cotton socks on him. In the morning when he awoke they removed the socks. The slices of onion were black & his fever was gone.

In 1919 when the flu killed 40 million people there was this Doctor that visited the many farmers to see if he could help them combat the flu. Many of the farmers and their family had contracted it and many died.

The doctor came upon this one farmer and to his surprise, everyone was very healthy. When the doctor asked what the farmer was doing that was different the wife replied that she had placed an unpeeled onion in a dish in the rooms of the home, (probably only two rooms back then). The doctor couldn’t believe it and asked if he could have one of the onions and place it under the microscope. She gave him one and when he did this, he did find the flu virus in the onion. It obviously absorbed the bacteria, therefore, keeping the family healthy.

Now, I heard this story from my hairdresser in AZ. She said that several years ago many of her employees were coming down with the flu and so were many of her customers. The next year she placed several bowls with onions around in her shop. To her surprise, none of her staff got sick. It must work.. (And no, she is not in the onion business.)

The moral of the story is, buy some onions and place them in bowls around your home. If you work at a desk, place one or two in your office or under your desk or even on top somewhere. Try it and see what happens. We did it last year and we never got the flu.

For flu cure : cut both ends off an onion put one end on a fork and then place the forked end into an empty jar…placing the jar next to the sick patient at night. It said the onion would be black in the morning from the germs…sure enough it happened just like that…the onion was a mess and I began to feel better.

Onions and garlic placed around the room saved many from the black plague years ago. They have powerful antibacterial, antiseptic properties.

From the above testimonies, it is evident that the humble onion has that magic touch!

The moral of the story is, buy some onions and place them in bowls around your home.

If you work at a desk, place one or two in your office or under your desk or even on top somewhere. Try it and see what happens. People do it and don’t get flu. If this helps you and your loved ones from getting sick, all the better. If you do get the flu, it just might be a mild case. What have you to lose? Just a few bucks on onions!!!!

Now there is a P.S. To this: I sent it to a friend in Oregon who regularly contributes material to me on
health issues .And she replied with this most interesting experience about onions:

Thanks for the reminder. I don’t know about the farmer’s story, but I do know that I contacted pneumonia and needless to say I was very ill. I came across an article that said to cut both ends off an onion, put one end on a fork and then place the forked end into an empty jar…placing the jar next to the sick patient at night. It said the onion would be black in the morning from the
germs.

Sure enough it happened just like that… The onion was a mess and I began to feel better.

Another thing I read in the article was that onions and garlic placed around the room Saved many from the black plague years ago. They have powerful antibacterial and Antiseptic properties.

This is the other note.

LEFT OVER ONIONS ARE POISONOUS

I have used an onion which has been left in the fridge, and sometimes I Don’t use a whole one at one time, so save the other half for later.

Now with this info, I have changed my mind….will buy smaller onions in The future.

I had the wonderful privilege of touring Mullins Food Products, makers of Mayonnaise. Mullins is huge, and is owned by 11 brothers and sisters in The Mullins family. My friend, Jeanne, is the CEO.

Questions about food poisoning came up, and I wanted to share what I Learned from a chemist.

The guy who gave us our tour is named Ed – he’s one of the brothers.

Ed is a chemistry expert and is involved in developing most of the sauce formula. He’s even developed sauce formula for McDonald’s. Keep in mind that Ed is a food chemistry whiz.

During the tour, someone asked if we really needed to worry about mayonnaise. People are always worried that mayonnaise will spoil.

Ed’s answer will surprise you. He said that all commercially- made Mayo is completely safe. “It doesn’t even have to be refrigerated. No harm in refrigerating it, but it’s not really necessary.” He explained that the pH in mayonnaise is set at a point that bacteria could not survive in that environment.

He then talked about the quaint essential picnic, with the bowl of potato salad sitting on the table and how everyone blames the mayonnaise when someone gets sick.

Ed says that when food poisoning is reported, the first thing the officials look for is when the ‘victim’ last ate ONIONS and where those onions came from (in the potato salad?). Ed says it’s not the mayonnaise (as long as it’s not homemade Mayo) that spoils in the outdoors. It’s probably the onions, and if not the onions, it’s the POTATOES.

He explained, onions are a huge magnet for bacteria, especially uncooked onions. You should never plan to keep a portion of a sliced onion.. it’s not even safe if you put it in a zip-lock bag and put it in your refrigerator. It’s already contaminated enough just by being cut open and out for a bit, that it can be a danger to you. (and doubly watch out for those onions you put in your hotdogs at the baseball park!)

Ed says if you take the leftover onion and cook it like crazy you’ll probably be okay, but if you slice that leftover onion and put on your sandwich, you’re asking for trouble. Both the onions and the moist potato in a potato salad will attract and grow bacteria faster than any commercial mayonnaise will even begin to break down.

So, how’s that for news? Take it for what you will.

I (the author) am going to be very careful about my onions from now on.

For some reason, I see a lot of credibility coming from a chemist and a company that produces millions of pounds of mayonnaise every year.

Also, dogs should never eat onions. Their stomachs cannot metabolize onions.

Please remember it is dangerous to cut onion and use or cook the next day.

It becomes highly poisonous for even a single night and creates toxic bacteria which may cause adverse stomach infections because of excess bile secretions and even food poisoning.

Gov. Nasur Abdullah commands much respect from the masses in his home place of Bombo and beyond


From Left to Right:Abdullah Nasur Former Central Province Governor in Late President Idd Amin,Chief of Staff Land Forces Major General Charles Angina,Central Eastern Police Regional Police Commander Richard Mivule.Although Nasur is no longer in leadership,In Bombo town council he is still refered as governor and Commands respect from masses.Bombo town council is dominated by Nubians.Nasur was their own and the town council was once named a municipality but NRM refused to upheld the status.

From Left to Right:Abdullah Nasur Former Central Province Governor in Late President Idd Amin,Chief of Staff Land Forces Major General Charles Angina,Central Eastern Police Regional Police Commander Richard Mivule.Although Nasur is no longer in leadership,In Bombo town council he is still refered as governor and Commands respect from masses.Bombo town council is dominated by Nubians.Nasur was their own and the town council was once named a municipality but NRM refused to upheld the status.

Gov. Nasur Abdullah commands much respect from the masses in his home place of Bombo and beyond. The people who had the chance to be around him during his days as Governor of the Central Province can testify to the fact that he is simply a good man. He did his work with the conviction that the Central Province of Uganda had to be the best. He wanted a clean City of Kampala and without criminals. “Corruption” was not in his vocabulary. He did his job and was happy to live on his salary.

When the people remember how he used to speak in such a commanding voice, they don’t easily notice that Nasur Abdullah was a man with such a tremendous sense of humour. He made lots of jokes and frequently laughed during conversations and made all those in his company feel at ease.

Governor Nasur Abdullah felt at home in every society. He had the feeling of belonging and that could easily be detected by seing how he interacted with the people. The Baganda have a saying that, “Tebiwoomera amatama abiri”, in English there is a similar saying that, “There is no recipe that suits both cases”. What I mean here is that, although Governor Nasur Abdallah was appreciated by many, many others felt intimidated by him and therefore implored the President of Uganda to remove him. He was then replaced by another Governor.

Some people often say that, “You donot know the value of what you have until you lose it”. Shortly after the new Governor Samuel Odong had taken over, the city of Kampala was again ‘crying’ for the return of Governor Nasur Abdullah. The city was ‘invaded’ by pick-pockets and other criminals. Briefly, the situation in the city became chaotic.

Governor Nasur Abdullah simply felt at home in every society and I think, even being on a foreign territory did not make much difference to him. In 1977 the Uganda Armed Forces Boxing Team (Simba) was invited for a friendly tournament versus Tanzania in the city of Moshi, Tanzania. Gov. Nasur Abdullah accompanied the team as the Manager. With much excitement due to the perfomance of the Ugandans, Gov. Nasur Abdullah stood up and announced that, “The last bout of the evening will be between President Idi Amin of Uganda and President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania”. I was terrified and I believe, so were my fellow Ugandans. There was a sudden silence for a while before the situation returned to normal.

The Ugandans emerged victorius and our stay in Tanzania was as safe as could be. Several days later we flew back to Uganda to prepare for another tournament that was to be held in Moscow, Russia versus the Boxing Team of the Soviet Union Defence Forces. My suspicion is that President Idi Amin was informed about the “dangerous jock” that was made by Gov. Nasur Abdullah on a potential enemy territory in Moshi, Tanzania. We left for Moscow without Gov. Nasur Abdullah, but also returned home to Uganda with victory over the Soviets.

The purpose of this story is to inform the fellow UAH the kind of person Gov. Nasur Abdullah is, as I remember him. I certainly wish him only the best, for none else deserves it more than him.

May Allah Bless Uganda.

Byaruhanga Johny Rubin.
Netherlands.

A REAL INCIDENT:This incident that happened in a local hospital in Bangalore,India


A 4 year old girl was admitted due to leg fracture. As it was an open fracture, she had to undergo an operation to stitch the protruding bone back in place.

Though it was quite a minor operation, she was hooked on to life support system, as a part of the process.

The doctors had to input some data prior to the operation to suit different conditions. Thereafter, the operation proceeded.

Half way through the process, the life support system suddenly went dead.

The culprit : Some one was using his/her hand-phone outside the operation theatre. And the frequency had affected the system. They tried to track the person, but to no avail. The little girl,young and innocent as she was, died soon after.

Be compassionate! Do not use your hand phone / mobiles especially at any hospitals or within the Aircraft or any places where you are told not to use it… You might not be caught in the act, but you might kill someone unknowingly.

Last Word:
Please do not use your mobile phones in hospitals / petrol pumps / aircraft etc wherever it is mentioned no use of mobiles, go by the rules, it’s a matter of life & death.

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